Chapter 2 Computer System Structures

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Chapter 2 Computer System Structures by Mind Map: Chapter 2 Computer System Structures

1. Computer-System Operation

1.1. A general-purpose computer system consists of one or more CPUs and a number of device controllers.

1.2. Each device controller is in charge of a specific type of device.

1.3. Each device controller has a local buffer

1.4. The CPU and device controllers can execute concurrently

1.5. Device controller informs CPU that it has finished its operation by causing an interrupt.

1.6. Interrupt indicates the occurrence of an event from either the hardware or software.

2. Interrupt Handling

2.1. When the CPU is interrupted, it stops what it is doing and immediately transfers execution to a fixed location.

2.2. Interrupt vector provide the address of the interrupt service routine for the interrupting device.

2.3. Separate segments of code determine what action should be taken for each type of interrupt

2.4. The OS preserves the state of the CPU by storing registers and the program counter.

2.5. After the interrupt is serviced, the saved return address is loaded into the program counter.

3. Storage Structure

3.1. Main memory

3.1.1. only large storage media that the CPU can access directly.

3.2. Secondary storage

3.2.1. extension of main memory that provides nonvolatile storage capacity.

4. Storage Hierarchy

4.1. Storage systems organized in hierarchy

4.1.1. Speed

4.1.2. Cost

4.1.3. Volatility

4.2. Caching

4.2.1. Copying information into faster storage system.

5. Dual-mode Operation

5.1. User Mode

5.1.1. user program executes in user mode

5.1.2. certain areas of memory are protected from user access

5.1.3. certain instructions may not be executed

5.2. Kernel Mode

5.2.1. monitor executes in kernel mode

5.2.2. privileged instructions may be executed

5.2.3. protected areas of memory may be accessed