MOBILE COMPUTING 2025 Four Group Members: Leader: Tyler King Design: Jessica Wu Notes witer: Mar...

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MOBILE COMPUTING 2025 Four Group Members: Leader: Tyler King Design: Jessica Wu Notes witer: Marry-Ann Intera Research: Deependrejeet Lall by Mind Map: MOBILE COMPUTING 2025  Four Group Members: Leader: Tyler King Design: Jessica Wu Notes witer: Marry-Ann Intera Research: Deependrejeet Lall


1.1. With the rapid advancement of technology in Artificial Intelligence, Integrated Circuitry and increases in Computer Processor speeds, the future of mobile computing looks increasingly exciting.

1.2. With the emphasis increasingly on compact, small mobile computers, it may also be possible to have all the practicality of a mobile computer in the size of a hand held organizer or even smaller.

1.3. Use of Artificial Intelligence may allow mobile units to be the ultimate in personal secretaries, which can receive emails and paging messages, understand what they are about, and change the individuals personal schedule according to the message. This can then be checked by the individual to plan his/her day.

1.4. The working lifestyle will change, with the majority of people working from home, rather than commuting. This may be beneficial to the environment as less transportation will be utilized. This mobility aspect may be carried further in that, even in social spheres, people will interact via mobile stations, eliminating the need to venture outside of the house.


2.1. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) is a branch of computer science that aims to create intelligent machines that work and react like humans. It has become an essential part of the technology industry.

2.2. Research associated with artificial intelligence is highly technical and specialized. The core problems of artificial intelligence include programming computers for certain traits such as:

2.2.1. Knowledge

2.2.2. Reasoning

2.2.3. Perception

2.2.4. Planning

2.2.5. Ability to manipulate and move objects

2.2.6. Learning

2.3. Knowledge engineering is a core part of AI research. Machines can often act and react like humans only if they have abundant information relating to the world.

2.3.1. To implement knowledge engineering, artificial intelligence must have access to: Objects Categories Properties Relations

2.3.2. However, It is a difficult and tedious approach to initiate these into machines: Common Sense Reasoning Problem Solving Power

2.4. Machine learning is another core part of AI.

2.4.1. Learning without any kind of supervision requires an ability to identify patterns in streams of inputs, whereas learning with adequate supervision involves classification and numerical regressions. Classification determines the category an object belongs to and regression deals with obtaining a set of numerical input or output examples, thereby discovering functions enabling the generation of suitable outputs from respective inputs.

2.4.2. Mathematical analysis of machine learning algorithms and their performance is a well-defined branch of theoretical computer science often referred to as computational learning theory.

2.5. Machine perception deals with the capability to use sensory inputs to deduce the different aspects of the world, while computer vision is the power to analyze visual inputs with few sub-problems such as facial, object and speech recognition.

2.6. Robotics are a major part of AI

2.6.1. Robots require intelligence to handle tasks Object Manipulation and Navigation Sub- Problems of Localization Motion Planning Mapping


2.7.1. One trend in computer technologies over the last decades was definitely that of devices becoming smaller and personal. Monolithic main-frame systems with many users are almost extinct and personal computers were the first milestone in this evolution. But the PC was not in the line.

2.7.2. The personal computer is still getting smaller and portable computers such as powerful laptops and less powerful but lighter personal digital assistants (PDA's) are now getting extremely popular,

2.7.3. The next step are wearable computers that are carried by the user like clothes and where new display technologies like head-mounted displays, allow new ways of augmenting the user's reality.

2.7.4. The preliminary end of this development seems to be the disappearing computer where computers are not perceived as technical devices any more, but rather form a computing environment in the user's world, embedded into clothes, cars, items like TV sets, but also into microwave ovens and even milk bottles.


2.8.1. Today's information technology is rapidly moving small computerized consumer devices and hi-tech personal appliances from the desks of research labs into sales shelves and our daily life. Mobile phones, PDAs, portable computers seem to merge and a new generation of smart devices with mobile communication access and reasonable computing power is now already available. New communication protocols and techniques like UMTS as a high bandwidth wireless network standard or WAP as a protocol for mobile application allow information access everywhere. Combined with localization through the satellite navigation system GPS or through triangulation methods using the mobile phones, services may become aware of the user’s location.

2.8.2. But light and powerful hardware together with wireless networking do not yet guarantee the usefulness of these mobile systems. Traditional software and services can be used in a mobile scenario, but some software will just not be usable when a keyboard is not available or the display is too small for extended graphical output. Therefore, the main challenge for the success of mobile systems is the design of smart user interfaces and software that allows ubiquitous and easy access to personal information and that is flexible enough to handle changes in user context and availability of resources.

2.8.3. There is a number of hard problems that have to be solved in order to built new and useful information infrastructures for mobile users. Among these are solutions needed for Location Awareness Context Awareness interaction metaphors and interaction devices for mobile systems - smart user interfaces for mobile systems Situation Adapted User Interfaces Adaptation to Limited Resources Fault Tolerance Service Discovery, Service Description Languages and Standards


2.9.1. Artificial intelligence has investigated the problems of making user interfaces smart and cooperative for many years and is attacking the challenges of explicitly dealing with limited resources lately. AI methods may provide a range of solutions for those problems. But AI methods do not only seem to be useful rather, to be the most promising tools for building location and situation aware mobile systems that support users at their best and behave cooperatively in unobtrusive ways.

2.9.2. In the field of building intelligent mobile assistance systems, AI is not only a nice add-on but a necessary pre-requisite. Moreover, not just one AI technique is needed here. A whole set of different techniques are to be integrated in order to reach a satisfying goal. Learning, for instance, is crucial for user-adapted services. Both symbolic AI learning methods and sub-symbolic AI methods from the field of neural networks can provide the necessary flexibility for a system that adapts to the user’s preferences in different contexts. But also spatial reasoning becomes a central component of location aware systems. Here, these methods are challenged with real world environments and it can be shown that they are not only useful in some toy-environment of a block world simulation. Other techniques may be used for resource adaptive services and for smart localization of the user, e.g. through decision-theoretic planning of navigation instructions

3. References: [Cicret Bracelet] (2014, October 30). The Cicret Bracelet: Like a tablet...but on your skin [video file]. Retrieved from [Corning Incorporated] (2011, February 7). A Day Made of Glass...Made Possible by Corning (2011) [video file]. Retrieved from Dossey, A. (2017, October 19). How Artificial Intelligence is driving Mobile App Personalization. Retrieved from Clearbridge Mobile: Eastwood, G. (2017, January 3). How AI is Transforming Cloud Computing. Retrieved from Network World: Executive Office of the President National Science and Technology Council Committee on Technology. (2016, October). Preparing for the Future of Artificial Intelligence. Retrieved from Obama White House Archives: Gaudin, Sharon (2014). Tech Breakthroughs may mean "digital everything" by 2025 Computerworld. Retrieved from Howarth, F. (2016, October 18). The Future Role of AI in Mobile Security. Retrieved from Insights Samsung: Ismail, N. (2018, March 5). The Combination of Artificial Intelligence and The Cloud. Retrieved from Information Age: Jackson, Brian (2014). The "Cicret" is out - this futuristic bracelet doesn't exist Retrieved from Microsoft. (n.d.). What is Cloud Computing? A Beginner's Guide. Retrieved from Microsoft: Raoul, V. (2018, June 29). The Cybercrime Landscape is Evolving -- Will Your Mobile Threat Defense Strategy Keep Up? Retrieved from Security Intelligence:


4.1. How much further could they go beyond a watch that thinks it's a smartphone? How about a wristband that projects what you see on a smartphone or tablet screen onto your wrist? That is the idea behind the Cicret. It's a bracelet that you turn on by flicking your wrist. It even syncs to your phone so you can have phone conversations, and exchange text messages. This video showing off its capabilities went viral last year. It seemed too good to be true, and unfortunately, it is just that. Although this video looks amazing; showing people using it in different scenarios such as the bathtub or out on a bike, all of the effects were added in post-production, and there is no actual prototype yet (Jackson, 2014). Which actually makes it kind of funny when you imagine the actors pretending to use a smartphone on their skin. It also looks like something out of Star Trek or Star Wars. Even though this product isn't actually available yet, it is highly possible by 2025 we could have something similar.


5.1. Is the use of portable computing devices in conjunction with People using such a system are sometimes referred to as technomads, and their ability to use that system as nomadicity.

5.1.1. Laptops

5.1.2. Handheld Devices

5.2. Also includes mobile communications technologies to enable users to access the Internet and data from:

5.2.1. Home Computers

5.2.2. Work Computers

5.2.3. Anywhere around the world


6.1. Mobile computing, as it stands today, offers many exciting opportunities. However, the challenges that the research community faces are quite significant. These challenges include :

6.1.1. Mobility Aspects

6.1.2. Power

6.1.3. Frequent Connections/Disconnections

6.1.4. Bandwidth Limitations

6.1.5. Cost Factors

6.1.6. Resource Scheduling and Management

6.1.7. Advanced Concurrency

6.1.8. Replication

6.1.9. Synchronization Algorithms

6.2. Mobile computing is a rapidly emerging research and development area.

6.2.1. Examples of applications which are in a great need of mobile access to computing resources include: Agriculture Bushfire Control Mass Disasters Wildlife Monitoring Non-Stop Business activity Many more

6.2.2. There has been a considerable research effort going on around the world with respect to mobility. A number of research groups have been set up all around the world to deal with the various aspects of mobility.

6.3. Mobile computing is enjoying rapidly growing interest and popularity. This is indicated by the fact that almost any international conference in the areas of networking, distributed systems and databases includes now at least one session to discuss mobility issues and impact.


7.1. AI has the potential and ability to help solve the greatest challenges and inefficiencies in security for Mobile Computing

7.1.1. This is proven today with the products such as: Smart Vehicles They provide comfort and security for the elderly and disabled Smart Buildings They use automation to reduce energy consumption and enable the whole building to work more efficiently (Executive Office of the President National Science and Technology Council Committee on Technology, 2016)

7.1.2. AI will be the ultimate defensive and offensive security measures for mobile and cybersecurity The workforce is becoming more mobile Why? Dangers? Can be achieved by machine learning to better interpret data so organisations can detect security threats and vulnerability AI will work alongside humans to come up with the best possible solutions for threats and vulnerabilities (Howarth, 2016)

7.2. An AI that performs the tasks of a real-life secretary (Dossey, 2017)

7.2.1. We already have limited intelligent assistants on our mobile technology today like: Cortana Google assistant Siri Limitations?

7.2.2. Can be achieved by the " Fusion of AI and Cloud Computing" (Eastwood, 2017) Cloud computing can provide information they already have Cloud Computing is “the delivery of computing services --- servers, storage, databases … --- over the Internet (“The Cloud”)” (Microsoft, n.d.) Ai's gather information to give Cloud more data "Requires huge amount of compute power" (Ismail, 2018)

7.2.3. They adjust based on learned behaviour Will do more than just : Answer our questions by searching the web Call people when we can't use our hands Have a pre-scripted responses to our questions Become Intuitive Holding conversations Improve user experience Make decisions based on the ongoing data inputted into the cloud Improve efficiency Learning to do majority of tasks done by a real-life secretary (Dossey, 2017)


7.3.1. The biggest expected change in 2025 will be the growth of Cloud computing. It's still in its early stages, allowing people to store their files online, allowing them to access it from any system. Although right now this is mostly limited to files, it's possible that we'll have "digitally connected cars, smart homes, and refrigerators and dishwashers that can think for themselves" (Gaudin, 2014). Most if not all connectivity will be wireless, ethernet cords will go the same way as the dodo and dial-up modems. This is a really interesting concept video, showing what a Smarthouse might actually be like. Nearly every surface in the house is an interface, allowing you to interact with it much like the tablets and smartphones we know today. The video even goes beyond the house, showing similar technology available in the car and at bus stops. Much like the Cicret I talked about earlier, this technology is still in development, so most of what you see is added in post-production. Still, technology like this could be readily available in 2025.