Earth Science (Sem 2)

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Earth Science (Sem 2) by Mind Map: Earth Science (Sem 2)

1. Astronomy

1.1. Doppler effect

1.1.1. a perceived shift in frequency of a wave due to the relative motion of the source and observer

1.1.2. Fo = fs ( v)/((v±vs)) Moves toward: -vs Moves away: +vs

1.2. Light and astronomy

1.2.1. We use wavelength to observe features in the universe

1.2.2. Types Gamma ray Visible light Microwaves Infra-red Ultra violet X-ray Radiowaves

1.3. Life outside of Earth

1.3.1. Challenging environments extreme hot Animals would have small body with long legs to stay far away from the heat. They might develop spikes extreme cold Animals might develop thick fur with anti freezing proteins in their blood Extreme high gravity Blobby structure and filled with lots of gas to help their body float Extreme low gravity Small insects and birds are usually found since they can travel longer distance.

1.4. Major space missions

1.4.1. Voyager - Jupiter and Saturn and further interstellar space

1.4.2. WMAP - remnants of the big bang

1.4.3. Apollo - mission to the moon

1.4.4. Hubble - optical view of the universe

1.4.5. New Horizons - Pluto

1.4.6. Kepler - exo planets

1.4.7. ISS - discover how human react to beings in space

1.4.8. Chandra - x rays photography

1.4.9. Curiosity - Mars rover

1.4.10. Cassini - Saturn and its rings

2. Oceanography

2.1. Global Oceans

2.1.1. 5 main oceans Pacific ocean Indian Ocean Atlantic Ocean Arctic Ocean Southern Ocean

2.2. Features of the ocean

2.2.1. Continental margins high-floating material Tectonic movements Fluctuation of sea level Size of river

2.2.2. Deep ocean basin Deep sea trenches abyssal hills

2.2.3. Active and Passive margins Similarities: have tectonic movments Differences Continental shelf of active is smaller than that of passive Continental slope of active is much wider than that of passive No continental rise in active while continental rise can be found in passive margin Lots of mountain formed by active margin while not much formed by passive margin Trenches can be found in active margins while ridges can be found in passive

2.3. Measuring the depth of the ocean

2.3.1. Techniques SONAR Sound Navigation And Range Used by sending sound waves to the bottom of the ocean and then it bounces back. Modern SONAR Fires many censor to various directions can measure the depth of the ocean as far as 10km Measure from space Satellites send out microwave from space then we know how deep the ocean beneath the point of the microwave is.

2.4. Sediments of the ocean floor

2.4.1. Types of sediments Terrigenous: by rocks being weathered Biogenous: by things that usually alive (bone) A common form of this type of sediment is Calcareous (CaCO3) ooze Hydrogenous: by chemical reaction underwater Manganese Nodules Calcium Carbonates Metal Sulfides Evaporates