Parkinson's Disease

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Parkinson's Disease by Mind Map: Parkinson's Disease

1. Dopaminergics: convert to dopamine

1.1. Carbidopa-levadopa (Sinemet)

1.1.1. Phenothiazines

1.1.2. side effects: fatigue dry mouth blurred vision orthostatic hypotension urinary retention N&V psychosis

1.1.3. taking alone or with levodopa or anticholinergic

1.1.4. Drug interactions: decrease effect w/: Anticholinergics Phenytoin tricylic antidepressants MAO inhibitors Benzos B6

2. MAO-B inhibitors: inhibits MAO-B enzymes, that interferes w DA

3. monitor for orthostatic hypotension

4. Dopamine agonists: stimulate DA receptors

4.1. Amantadine (symmetrel)

4.1.1. Nursing interventions: give drug w low protein foods avoid alcohol and other depressants, B6 do not discontinue abruptly warn of brown colored urine or sweat (harmless) "on-off" phenomenon Biperiden (Akineton) test blood cell counts, kidney and liver funtion

5. Pathophysiology

5.1. Chronic neurologic disorder

5.2. imbalance of dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh)

5.3. degeneration of neurons

6. Characteristics

6.1. tremors

6.2. Bradynesia

6.3. shuffling walk

6.4. posture changes

6.5. lacking facial expressing

6.6. rigidity

6.7. pin rolling of hands

6.8. non motor symptoms: depression, psychosis, dementia, sleep problems

7. Treatments

7.1. Anticholinergics

7.1.1. Parasympatholytic: inhibits release of ACh Benztropine (cogentin) Trihexphenidyl HCl (Artane)

7.1.2. Nursing Interventions: monitor vitals Monitor urine output increase fluid, fiber and excercise suggest glasses for photophobia

7.2. COMT inhibitors: inhibits COMT enzyme that inactivates DA