Pathophysiology of ENT

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Pathophysiology of ENT by Mind Map: Pathophysiology of ENT

1. MUCUS

1.1. Viscoelastic gel (H20 + High MW crosslink Glycoprotein) form tangled network

1.2. Function: Antimicrobial/inflame substance expel via coughing, swallowing, expelling

1.3. COLOR : Discoloured = Presence of bacterial infection (Sick, not for healthy ppl to diff viral or bacterial)

1.3.1. GREEN/YELLOW =Presence of Myeloperoxidase (Neutrophil enzyme against viral or bacterial like COPD)

2. Protective reflex

2.1. PROCESS: Vagus nerve> PSNS> Bronchi &Trachea> Bronchoconstriction & mucus secretion> Submucosa gland

2.2. COUGH/ SNEEZING

2.2.1. Emergency(choked by H20) or Airway Defensive reflex

2.2.1.1. Remove Foreign material & secretion

2.2.2. Due to: Inflammation, Drug(ACE), INFECTION

2.2.3. 2 types:

2.2.3.1. ACUTE

2.2.3.1.1. GOOD

2.2.3.2. CHRONIC

2.2.3.2.1. Productive/ Wet/ Effective

2.2.3.2.2. Unproductive / Dry/ Ineffective

2.2.3.2.3. Due to: Asthma, Allergy, COPD, smoking, GORD, Drug, Stress, Throat disorder

2.2.4. Cough reflex

2.2.4.1. Mechano/Chemo receptor> Larynx afferent neuron> NTS medulla> Efferent > Larynx, resp muscle, pelvic sphincter(stop incontinence)

2.3. INNATE/ MUCOSA DEFENCE

2.3.1. Nasal Mucosa Reflex

2.3.1.1. Resistance (Arteries) & Capacitance(Vein) Blood vessel, SN Sinusoid Vein> NA> bind to alpha2 pre & postjunction alpha 1/2

2.3.1.1.1. Nasal congestion & Q

2.3.1.1.2. Sinus emptying in vein

2.3.2. Nasal passage + Mucus membrane

2.3.2.1. Absorption stop liver metabolism

2.3.2.2. Vascularised, swell, BV inflam