Pathophysiology of ENT

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Pathophysiology of ENT by Mind Map: Pathophysiology of ENT


1.1. Viscoelastic gel (H20 + High MW crosslink Glycoprotein) form tangled network

1.2. Function: Antimicrobial/inflame substance expel via coughing, swallowing, expelling

1.3. COLOR : Discoloured = Presence of bacterial infection (Sick, not for healthy ppl to diff viral or bacterial)

1.3.1. GREEN/YELLOW =Presence of Myeloperoxidase (Neutrophil enzyme against viral or bacterial like COPD)

2. Protective reflex

2.1. PROCESS: Vagus nerve> PSNS> Bronchi &Trachea> Bronchoconstriction & mucus secretion> Submucosa gland


2.2.1. Emergency(choked by H20) or Airway Defensive reflex Remove Foreign material & secretion

2.2.2. Due to: Inflammation, Drug(ACE), INFECTION

2.2.3. 2 types: ACUTE GOOD CHRONIC Productive/ Wet/ Effective Unproductive / Dry/ Ineffective Due to: Asthma, Allergy, COPD, smoking, GORD, Drug, Stress, Throat disorder

2.2.4. Cough reflex Mechano/Chemo receptor> Larynx afferent neuron> NTS medulla> Efferent > Larynx, resp muscle, pelvic sphincter(stop incontinence)


2.3.1. Nasal Mucosa Reflex Resistance (Arteries) & Capacitance(Vein) Blood vessel, SN Sinusoid Vein> NA> bind to alpha2 pre & postjunction alpha 1/2 Nasal congestion & Q Sinus emptying in vein

2.3.2. Nasal passage + Mucus membrane Absorption stop liver metabolism Vascularised, swell, BV inflam