Colonial Era in Malaya

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Colonial Era in Malaya by Mind Map: Colonial Era in Malaya

1. The rise of Nationalism

1.1. Malay Nationalism

1.1.1. At religious stage, influenced by Islamic Reformation Movement from Middle East

1.1.2. Malay students in Cairo, influenced by the ‘Renewal of Islam’ movement.

1.1.3. At political stage, Malay association - ‘Malay for the Malays’

1.2. Indian Nationalism

1.2.1. The Central Indian Association of Malaya

1.2.1.1. Progress and political rights of Indians in Malaya.

1.2.1.2. Malaya's Indians influenced by the National Movement in India

1.2.1.2.1. Led by Mahatma Gandhi, obtained independence for India

1.3. Chinese Nationalism

1.3.1. Struggles focused on political of China

1.3.2. Kuomintang Party, China

1.3.2.1. Major influence for the founding of Malayan Communist Party (MCP) in Malaya.

2. Colonist

2.1. Portugese (1511-1611)

2.1.1. First colonial power

2.1.2. Mainly in Malacca

2.2. Dutch (1641-1824

2.2.1. Mainly in Malacca

2.3. British (1824-1842) (1945-1957)

2.3.1. Colonized whole Peninsula Malaysia

2.3.2. Last colonial power

2.4. Japanese (1942-1945)

2.4.1. Colonized entire country

3. Parameswara

3.1. Srivijaya, Indonesia

3.2. Termasik, Singapore

3.3. Muar, Johor

3.4. Malacca

4. Communist Ideology

4.1. For Malays, it's against Islamic teachings, denied existence of God.

4.2. Chinese dominated MCP.

4.2.1. Created suspicions among Malays and Indians

4.2.2. Many Chinese were not interested in joining MCP.

4.3. British's ideas and actions against communist

4.3.1. Identity card system

4.3.2. 'Black and white' area

4.3.3. Relocation Plan, restricting food supply

5. Malayan Union and Reactions of the Local

5.1. Introduced by the British.

5.1.1. Unify administrative system, improve administration efficiency.

5.1.2. Control and restrict power of the Malays.

5.1.3. Attempt to implement a system where local ruled, but adhered to British political system.

5.2. Malay opposed

5.2.1. Abolishment of Sultan's sovereignty

5.2.2. 'Jus-soli' principle

5.2.2.1. Whoever resides in Tanah Melayu can get citizenship, including British.

5.2.3. Malayan Union formed without input from Malays and planned in London

5.2.3.1. Sultans given 1 day to read and accept conditions, no discussion with state leader.

6. Appearance of Main Political Parties after World War 2

6.1. Alliance

6.1.1. UMNO

6.1.1.1. National United Malay Organization (1946)

6.1.1.2. Founded by Dato Onn Jaafar

6.1.2. MCA

6.1.2.1. Malayan Chinese Association (1949)

6.1.2.2. Founded by Tan Cheng Lock

6.1.3. MIC

6.1.3.1. Malayan Indian Congress (1947)

6.1.3.2. Founded by John Thivy

6.2. Islam

6.2.1. PAS

6.2.1.1. Islamic Party of Malaya (1951)

6.2.1.2. Founded by Ahmad Fuad HAssan

6.2.1.3. Purpose - Set up an Islamic government

6.2.1.4. Fought for Islam as official religion, Malay as official language.

7. Process towards Independence

7.1. City Council Elections

7.1.1. A test of unity in the country

7.2. First General Elections in Tanah Melayu, 1955

7.2.1. The Alliance Party won

7.3. Tunku Abdul Rahman, the Chief Minister led a team to London in February 1956

7.3.1. Negotiate for Malaya's independence.

7.4. Result of negotiations

7.4.1. London Agreement signed on 8 February 1956

7.4.1.1. Federated States of Malaya, independence on 31st August 1957.

7.5. Drafting the Federated States of Malaya constitution

7.5.1. Show tolerance between races

7.5.2. Social contract between Malays and non-Malays.

7.6. Malays agreed to loosen conditions for citizenship

7.6.1. Extended to include non-Malays

7.7. Non-Malays agreed to acknowledge

7.7.1. Status of Malay Sultans

7.7.2. Islam as national religion

7.7.3. Special rights of Malays.