INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

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INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN by Mind Map: INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

1. what is INFORMATION SYSTEM

1.1. DEFINTION

1.1.1. Information

1.1.1.1. Is data that has been transformed into output that is valuable to users

1.1.1.2. Example : an order processing system that displays an order form

1.1.2. Information System

1.1.2.1. Combines information technology, people and data to support business requirements

1.1.2.2. Information System have 5 components which are hardware, software, data, processes and people

1.2. COMPONENTS of Information System

1.2.1. Hardware

1.2.1.1. Is the physical layer of the information system

1.2.2. Software

1.2.2.1. System software

1.2.2.2. Application software

1.2.2.3. Enterprise applications

1.2.3. Data

1.2.3.1. Tables store data

1.2.3.2. Linked tables work together to supply data

1.2.4. Processes

1.2.4.1. Describe the tasks and business functions that users, managers, and IT staff members perform to achieve specific results

1.2.5. People

1.2.5.1. Stakeholders

1.2.5.2. Users, or end users

1.3. TYPES of Information System

1.3.1. Executives

1.3.1.1. Executive Information Systems

1.3.2. Senior Managers

1.3.2.1. Decision Support Systems

1.3.3. Middle Managers

1.3.3.1. Management Information Systems

1.3.4. Workers

1.3.4.1. Transaction Processing Systems

2. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT APPROACH

2.1. METHOD

2.1.1. Structured Analysis

2.1.1.1. Is a traditional systems development technique that is time tested and easy to understand

2.1.1.2. Uses a series of phases to plan, analyze, design, implement and support an IS

2.1.2. Object Oriented Analysis

2.1.2.1. is a popular technical approach for analyzing, designing an application, system

2.1.2.2. or business by applying the object-oriented paradigm and visual modeling throughout the development life cycles to foster better stakeholder communication and product quality

2.1.3. Agile/Adaptive Method

2.1.3.1. refers to an iterative, incremental method of managing the design and build activities of engineering, information technology and other business areas that aim to provide new product or service development in a highly flexible and interactive manner

3. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC)

3.1. PLANNING

3.1.1. identifies whether or not there is the need for a new system to achieve a business’s strategic objectives

3.1.2. a preliminary plan (or a feasibility study) for a company’s business initiative to acquire the resources to build on an infrastructure to modify or improve a service

3.1.3. The company might be trying to meet or exceed expectations for their employees, customers and stakeholders too

3.1.4. Resources, costs, time, benefits and other items should be considered at this stage

3.2. ANALYZE

3.2.1. where businesses will work on the source of their problem or the need for a change

3.2.2. possible solutions are submitted and analyzed to identify the best fit for the ultimate goal(s) of the project.

3.2.3. where system analysis takes place or analyzing the needs of the end users to ensure the new system can meet their expectations.

3.3. DESIGN

3.3.1. the necessary specifications, features and operations that will satisfy the functional requirements of the proposed system which will be in place.

3.3.2. is the step for end users to discuss and determine their specific business information needs for the proposed system. It"s during this phase that they will consider the essential components (hardware and/or software) structure (networking capabilities), processing and procedures for the system to accomplish its objectives.

3.4. DEVELOPMENT

3.4.1. marks the end of the initial section of the process

3.5. TESTING

3.5.1. involves systems integration and system testing (of programs and procedures)—normally carried out by a Quality Assurance (QA) professional—to determine if the proposed design meets the initial set of business goals.

3.5.2. Testing may be repeated, specifically to check for errors, bugs and interoperability

3.6. IMPLEMENTATION

3.6.1. when the majority of the code for the program is written

3.6.2. This step puts the project into production by moving the data and components from the old system and placing them in the new system via a direct cutover

3.7. MAINTENANCE

3.7.1. involves maintenance and regular required updates.

3.7.2. includes providing latest updates for certain components to make sure it meets the right standards and the latest technologies to face current security threats.

4. TYPES OF LIFE CYCLE

4.1. WATERFALL MODEL

4.1.1. Represents the system in terms of data and the processes that objects that act upon that data

4.1.2. System development is organized into phases with deliverables and milestones to measure progress

4.1.3. Changes can be costly, especially in later phases

4.1.4. Requirements are defined early, and can change during development

4.2. SPIRAL MODEL

4.3. ITERATIVE AND INCREMENTAL DEVELOPMENT

4.3.1. Develop a system through repeated cycles (iterative) and in smaller portions at a time (incremental), allowing software developers to take advantage of what was learned during development of earlier parts or versions of the system

4.4. AGILE MODEL

4.4.1. attempt to develop a system incrementally, by building a series of prototypes and constantly adjusting them to user requirements

4.5. PROTOTYPING MODEL

4.5.1. A prototype is an early working version of an information system

4.5.2. Prototyping tests system concepts and provides an opportunity to examine input, output, and user interfaces before final decision are made.

4.5.3. A prototype can serve as an initial model that is used as a benchmark to evaluate the finished system, or the prototype itself can develop into the final version of the system

4.6. RAPID APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT (RAD)

4.6.1. is a team-based technique that speeds up information systems development and produces a functioning information system

4.6.2. The RAD process allows users to examine a working model as early as possible, determine if it meets their need, and suggest necessary changes

4.7. JOINT APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT (JAD)

4.7.1. is a popular fact-finding technique that brings users into the development process as active participants

4.7.2. The JAD group usually has a project leader, who needs strong interpersonal and organizational skills, and one or more members who document and record the results and decisions

4.7.3. JAD can result in a more accurate statement of system requirements, a better understanding of common goals, and a stronger commitment to the success of the new system

5. PROJECT MANAGEMENT DESCRIPTION

5.1. PLANNING

5.2. SCHEDULING

5.3. MONITIORING

5.4. REPORTING

6. UNDERSTAND PROJECT MANAGEMENT

6.1. Explanation on Project

6.1.1. PLANNING

6.1.2. SCHEDULING

6.1.3. MONITORING

6.1.4. REPORTING

6.2. STEPS in Project Planning

6.3. DESCRIPTION ABOUT

6.3.1. WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURES

6.3.1.1. involves breaking a project down into a series of smaller tasks

6.3.1.2. A work breakdown structure must clearly identify each task and include an estimated duration. A task, or activity, is any work that has a beginning and an end and requires the use of company resources such as people,time, or money

6.3.2. TASK PATTERNS

6.3.2.1. Tasks in a work breakdown structure must be arranged in a logical sequence called a task pattern

6.3.3. CRITICAL PATH ANALYSIS

6.3.3.1. A critical path is a series of tasks which, if delayed, would affect the completion date of the overall project. If any task on the critical path falls behind schedule, the entire project will be delayed

6.3.3.2. Project managers always must be aware of the critical path, so they can respond quickly to keep the project on track

6.4. CREATE A WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE

6.5. TECHNIQUES FOE ESTIMATING TASK COMPLETION TIMES AND COSTS

6.6. LEADERSHIP AND PROJECT MANAGER EXPLANATION