1.1- introduction to cell

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1.1- introduction to cell by Mind Map: 1.1- introduction to cell

1. magnification

1.1. size of image/ actual size of specimen

2. actual size

2.1. size of image/ magnification

3. SL units

3.1. 10^(-3) of a meter is millimetre(mm), 10^(-6) is micrometre (um) , 10^(-9) is a nanometre (nm)

4. cell limitation on cell size

4.1. as an organism increases in size it's surface area to volume ratio ( SA : V) decreases

4.2. the rate at which substances cross the cell membrane depends on it's surface area

5. stem cell

5.1. undifferentiated cell of a multicellular organism that can form more cells of the same type indefinitely, and from which certain other kinds of cell arise by differentiation.

5.2. Multipotent(adult cell):

5.2.1. can be taken from bone narrow -differentiate into different types of blood cells

5.3. Pluripotent or Embryonic stem cell:

5.3.1. taken from a blastocyst of the zygote • Can differentiate into any different cell • Can treat diseases/ health problems

6. cell theory

6.1. 1- building blocks of organism

6.2. 2- smallest unit of life

6.3. 3- come from pre-existing cells

6.4. Atypical- means does not follow the theory.

6.5. striated skeletal muscle cell.

6.5.1. form from pre existing cells

6.5.2. surrounded by a membrane

6.5.3. own genetic material

6.5.4. create their own energy

6.5.5. Atypical- much larger than then most animal's cells + more than one nucleus

6.6. fungi

6.6.1. hyphae- long tube threadlike structure.

6.6.2. cell wall

6.6.3. cell membrane

6.6.4. septa- hyphae divided into small cell-like section

6.6.5. Aseptate Fungi no septa many nuclei spread around in a single mass cytoplasm

6.7. algae

6.7.1. photosynthesis

6.7.2. store genetic material in nucleus

6.7.3. acetabularia grows about 100mm is one cell

7. common things in cells

7.1. 1- surrounded by a membrane

7.2. 2- contains genetics materials

7.3. 3- cell activities are chemical reaction

7.4. 4- provide their own energy to power cell activities.

8. unicellular organism

8.1. organism that consist of just one cell. This cell has to carry all function of life

8.2. 1. Nutrition

8.2.1. obtain food to provide energy and material need for growth.

8.3. 2. Metabolism

8.3.1. chemical reaction inside the cell (cell respiration to release energy)

8.4. 3. Growth

8.4.1. irreversible increase in size

8.5. 4. response

8.5.1. react to change in the environment

8.6. 5. excretion

8.6.1. getting rid pf waste product

8.7. 6. homeostasis

8.7.1. stable internal environment within a tolerable range

8.8. 7. reproduction

8.8.1. producing offspring either sexually or asexually

8.9. Paramecium

8.9.1. asexually, clown itself the grow and split into two

8.9.2. lives in rivers

8.9.3. see structure on seperate sheet

8.10. Chlamydomonas

8.10.1. use photosynthesis

8.10.2. see structure on seperate sheet

9. multicellular organism

9.1. from one cell to many

9.2. Probably started as a small unicellular organism, over course of evolution of these cells clumped together and over long periods of time began to work together developing into multicellular.

9.3. 1. organism grew larger

9.3.1. no longer limited by the size

9.4. 2. differentiation

9.4.1. allow emergent properties specialised tissues can develop specialise in a particular function, carry out they role more efficiently

9.5. 3. emergent properties

9.5.1. the whole organism can do more things than individual cells are capable of, because of interaction between different part. The characteristic of the whole organisms including the fact that it’s alive are known as emergent properties.

9.6. Differentiation involves the expression of some genes and not in others in a cell’s genome

9.6.1. Most of the gene is being switched off as they will code for function that the cell does not do

10. Adult stem cells:

10.1. difficult to obtain

10.2. less growth

10.3. less chance of malignant tumours

10.4. limited capacity to differentiate

10.5. compatible with adult tissue

10.6. removal does not kill the adult cell

10.7. stargarts' muscular dystrophy

10.7.1. genetic disorder (6-12 year old)

10.7.2. mutation of recessive gene ABCA4

10.7.3. causes membrane protein in retina cells of the eye to malfunction

10.7.4. leads to progressive blindness

10.7.5. in 2010, transplantation into a woman where they attached the embryonic stem cells retina (no harmful side effect)

10.8. Leukemia

10.8.1. cancer of white blood cells

10.8.2. Leukocytes(released in blood stream to fight infection) made in bone marrow are produce in abnormal large numbers

10.8.3. Chemotherapy used to kill bone marrow cell

10.8.4. Donor bone marrow is introduce to patients’ blood

10.8.5. Stem cells migrate to the bone marrow and start to produce healthy leukocytes.

10.9. Ethical arguments For

10.9.1. potential for treatment of diseases

10.9.2. greatly reduce suffering of some individual

10.10. Ethical arguments against

10.10.1. result in killing of embryo

10.10.2. do not have right to create life to harvest

10.10.3. when life begins?