Endocrine Disorders

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Endocrine Disorders by Mind Map: Endocrine Disorders

1. Hypoparathyroidism

2. Pancreas

2.1. Emergencies

2.1.1. Hyperglycemia

2.1.1.1. DKA

2.1.1.1.1. Pathophysiology

2.1.1.1.2. Treatment

2.1.1.2. HONK

2.1.1.2.1. Pathophysiology

2.1.1.2.2. Treatment

2.1.2. Hypoglycemia

2.1.2.1. Oral glucose

2.1.2.2. IV dextrose

2.1.2.3. IM glucagon

2.2. Disorders

2.2.1. Diet - Oral - Injectables - Insulin

2.2.2. Diabeties

2.2.2.1. Type I

2.2.2.1.1. ~5% of cases

2.2.2.1.2. Autoimmune, incurrable

2.2.2.1.3. Total beta cell destruction

2.2.2.1.4. Insulin-dependent

2.2.2.2. Type 2

2.2.2.2.1. Most common - 90%

2.2.2.2.2. Not enough insulin or intolerant

2.2.2.2.3. Lifestyle

2.2.2.3. LADA

2.2.2.3.1. 30-50 yo

2.2.2.3.2. Antibodies like type 1

2.2.2.3.3. Slow destruction of beta cells

2.2.2.3.4. 6 months - 6 years

2.2.2.3.5. Insulin dependent

2.2.2.4. MODY

2.2.2.4.1. Rare

2.2.2.4.2. Before 25 yo

2.2.2.4.3. Genetic mutation

2.2.2.4.4. Pancreas still secretes insulin

2.2.2.5. Gestational

2.2.2.5.1. 2-5% of pregnancies

2.2.2.5.2. Macrosomia

2.2.2.6. Neonatal

2.2.2.6.1. Birth to 6 months

2.2.2.6.2. 1 in 400,000 infants in US

2.2.2.6.3. Temporary or Permenant

2.2.2.6.4. Can affect fetal development

2.2.3. Pancreatitis

3. Adrenal

3.1. Emergencies

3.1.1. Adrenal Crisis

3.1.1.1. Electrolyte disturbances

3.1.1.1.1. Hyponatremia

3.1.1.1.2. Hyperkalemia

3.1.1.2. GI disturbances

3.1.1.2.1. Fluids

3.1.1.2.2. Zofran

3.1.1.3. Solu-cortef

3.2. Disorders

3.2.1. Chronic adrenal insufficiency

3.2.1.1. Addison's disease

3.2.1.2. Secondary adrenal insufficiency

3.2.2. Acute adrenal insufficiency

3.2.2.1. Abrupt discontinuation of steriods

3.2.2.2. Stress, illness, trauma

3.2.3. Hyperadrenalism

3.2.3.1. Cushing's Syndrome

3.2.3.1.1. Moon face

3.2.3.1.2. Central obesity

3.2.3.1.3. Buffalo hump

3.2.3.1.4. Striae

3.2.3.2. Pheochromocytoma

4. Thyroid

4.1. Emergencies!

4.1.1. Myxedema Coma

4.1.1.1. Bradycardia

4.1.1.1.1. Atropine

4.1.1.1.2. TCP

4.1.1.1.3. Ionotropes

4.1.2. Thyroid Storm

4.1.2.1. Hyperpyrexia

4.1.2.1.1. Tylenol

4.1.2.1.2. ASA

4.1.2.2. Adrenergic hyperactivity

4.1.2.2.1. Propranolol

4.1.2.2.2. Corticosteroids

4.1.2.3. GI dysfunction

4.1.2.3.1. Aggressive hydration

4.2. Disorders

4.2.1. Hyperthyroid

4.2.1.1. Grave's Disease

4.2.1.2. Thyrotoxicosis

4.2.2. Hypothyroid

4.2.2.1. Hashimoto's

4.3. Parathyroid

5. Pituitary

5.1. SIADH

5.1.1. too MUCH ADH

5.1.1.1. anuria

5.1.1.2. relative hyponatremia

5.1.2. NO FLUIDS!

5.2. DI

5.2.1. not enough ADH

5.2.1.1. polyuria

5.2.1.2. polydipsia

6. Thiamine

6.1. Required for glucose to enter Kreb's Cycle

6.1.1. Deficiencies

6.1.1.1. Causes acidosis

6.1.1.1.1. Could theoretically worsen Wernicke's

6.1.1.2. Metabolism stops at pyruvate

6.1.1.3. Caused by malnutrition

6.1.1.3.1. Common in alcoholics

6.2. Given with glucose

6.2.1. Mostly in hospital/long term treatment

6.3. Found in typically diets