4.1 Routing Concepts

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4.1 Routing Concepts by Mind Map: 4.1 Routing Concepts

1. 4.Document Network Addressing

1.1. 1. Device names

1.2. 2. Interfaces

1.3. 3. IP addresses and subnet mask

1.4. 4. Default gateways

2. 5.Types of assigned IP address

2.1. 1. Statically Assigned IP Address

2.1.1. The host is manually assigned an IP address, subnet mask, default gateway and DNS server IP address.

2.2. 2. Dynamically Assigned IP Address

2.2.1. IP address information dynamically assigned by a server using DHCP.

3. 7. Basic IPv4 Router Configuration

3.1. a. Router> enable Router#

3.2. b. Router# conf t Enter configuration commands, one per line. End with CNTL/Z. Router(config)#

3.3. c. Router(config)# hostname R1 R1(config)#

3.4. d. R1(config)# interface g0/0 R1(config-if)# ip address <ip address> <subnet mask> R1(config-if)# no shutdown R1(config-if)# interface g0/1 R1(config-if)# ip address <ip address> <subnet mask> R1(config-if)# no shutdown

3.5. e. R1(config)# interface loopback 0 R1(config-if)# ip address <ip address> <subnet mask> R1(config-if)# interface loopback 1 R1(config-if)# ip address <ip address> <subnet mask> R1(config-if)# end

3.6. f. R1# copy running-config startup-config

4. 8. Basic IPv6 Router Configuration

4.1. #interface gigabitethernet 0/0 #description link to LAN 1 #ipv6 address 2001:db8:acad:1::1/64 #no shutdown #exit

4.2. Use the no shut down command to activate the port

5. 9. Verify IPv4 Interface Settings

5.1. 1. Show IP interface brief : Displays a summary for all interfaces including the IPv4 address of the interface and current operational status Command : sh ip int brie

5.2. 2. Show ip route : Displays the content of the IPv4 routing table stored in RAM Command : sh ip ro

5.3. 3. Show running-config : Displays the commands configured on the specified interface Command : wr

5.4. 4. Show interfaces : Displays interface information and packet flow count for all interfaces on the devices. Command : sh int

5.5. 5. Show ip interface : Displays the ip before related information for al interfaces on a router.

5.6. Notes : No 1 , 2 and 3 show commands that can be used verify the operation and configuration of an interface AND No 4 and 5 show commands to gather more detailed interface information.

6. 10. Verify IPv6 Interface Settings

6.1. 1. show IPv6 interface brief - display a summary for each of the interface.

6.2. 2. show IPv6 interface gigabitethernet 0/0 - displays the interface status and all the IPv6 addresses for this interface.

6.3. 3. show IPv6 route - verifies that IPv6 networks and specific IPv6 interface addresses have been installed in the IPv6 routing table.

7. 11. Path Determination

7.1. Best path: -Trusted source -Lowest distance

7.1.1. Administrative Distance(AD) If multiple paths to a destination are configured on a router, the path installed in the routing table is the one with the lowest AD.The smaller the administrative distance value, the more reliable the protocol.

7.1.2. Load Balancing Forward packets using both paths equally -Improve network performance -Can be configured to use both dynamic and static routes. (RIP, OSPF and EIGRP supports equal cost load balancing) Occurs when received and installed multiple paths with the same AD and cost to a destination.

8. 12. Routing Tables

8.1. Routing table is a file stored in RAM that contains information about:

8.1.1. Directly connected routes

8.1.2. Remote routes

8.1.3. Network or next hop associations

8.2. Routing Table Sources

8.2.1. Show IP Route Command is used to display contents of routing table: Local Route Interface Added to the routing table when an interface is configured. Directly Connected Interfaces Added to routing table when an interface is configured Static Routes Added when a route is manually configured and the exit interface is configured and active. Dynamic Routing Protocol Added when EIGRP or OSPF are implemented and network are identified

9. 13. Directly Connected Routed

9.1. added to a routing table when router interface is configured and active

9.2. always best path

9.3. interface must be up and active

9.4. added automatically when IP assign to router

10. 3.Packet Forwarding Methods

10.1. 1. Process Switching

10.2. 2. Fast switching

10.3. 3. Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF)

11. 1.Function of Router

11.1. What are the Other Routers Function ? - Routers can connect multiple to networks

11.2. What are the Routers Special Features ? - Have multiple interfaces, each on a different IP networks

11.3. How Routers Works ?

11.3.1. - A router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks. - When a data packet comes in on one of the lines, the router reads the network address information in the packet to determine the ultimate destination. - Then, using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey.

11.4. General Function - Responsible for the routing of traffic between networks

12. 2.Router Components

12.1. CPU (the processor)

12.2. IOS (Internetwork Operating System)

12.3. Memory and Storage (RAM, ROM, NVRAM, Flash Memory

13. 6. Console Access Required

13.1. Console cable

13.1.1. RJ-45-to-DB-9 console cable

13.2. Terminal emulation software

13.2.1. Tera Term, PuTTY, Hyper Terminal

14. 14. Dynamic Routing Protocol

14.1. In IPv4 routing protocols Cisco ISR supports a variety : EIGRP , OSPF , IS-IS , RIP

14.2. Dynamic routing protocol is used by routers to share information about the reachability and status of remote networks.

14.3. In IPv6 Cisco ISR routers can support a variety of : RIPng , OSPFv3 , EIGRP ,MP-BGP4