Operating System and Utility Programs

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Operating System and Utility Programs by Mind Map: Operating System and Utility Programs

1. Objectives Overview

1.1. Define system software and identify the two types of system software

1.2. Describe the functions of an operating system

1.3. Summarize the startup process on a personal computer

1.4. Summarize the features of several stand-alone operating systems

1.5. Briefly describe various server operating systems

1.6. Summarize the features of several embedded operating systems

1.7. Explain the purpose of several utility programs

2. System Software

2.1. Operating systems

2.2. Utility Programs

3. Operating Systems

3.1. An operating system (OS) is a set of programs containing instructions that work together to coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources

3.1.1. Start and shut down a computer

3.1.2. Provide a user interface

3.1.3. Manage programs

3.1.4. Manage memory

3.1.5. Coordinate tasks

3.1.6. Configure devices

3.1.7. Establish an Internet connection

3.1.8. Monitor performance

3.1.9. Provide utilities

3.1.10. Automatically update

3.1.11. Control a network

3.1.12. Administer security

4. Operating System Functions

4.1. Cold boot

4.2. Warm boot

5. Operating System Functions

5.1. A boot drive is the drive from which your computer starts

5.1.1. You can boot from a boot disk

5.1.2. A recovery disk contains a few system files that will start the computer

5.1.3. An operating system includes various shut down options

5.1.3.1. Sleep mode saves any open documents and programs to RAM, turns off all unneeded functions, and then places the computer in a low-power state

5.1.3.2. Hibernate saves any open documents and programs to a hard disk before removing power from the computer

5.1.4. A user interface controls how you enter data and instructions and how information is displayed on the screen

5.1.5. With a graphical user interface (GUI), you interact with menus and visual images

5.1.6. With a command-line interface, a user uses the keyboard to enter data and instructions

5.1.7. How an operating system handles programs directly affects your productivity

5.1.7.1. Single user and multiuser

5.1.7.2. Single tasking and multitasking

5.1.7.3. Foreground and background

5.1.7.4. Preemptive multitasking

5.1.7.5. Multiprocessing

5.1.8. Memory management optimizes the use of RAM

5.1.9. Virtual memory is a portion of a storage medium functioning as additional RAM

5.1.10. The operating system determines the order in which tasks are processed

5.1.11. A driver is a small program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device

5.1.12. Plug and Play automatically configures new devices as you install them

5.1.13. Operating systems typically provide a means to establish Internet connections

5.1.14. A performance monitor is a program that assesses and reports information about various computer resources and devices

5.1.15. Operating systems often provide users with the capability of

5.1.15.1. Managing files

5.1.15.2. Searching for files

5.1.15.3. Viewing images

5.1.15.4. Securing a computer

5.1.15.5. Uninstalling programs

5.1.15.6. Cleaning up disks

5.1.15.7. Defragmenting disks

5.1.15.8. Diagnosing problems

5.1.15.9. Backing up files and disks

5.1.15.10. Setting up screen savers

5.1.16. Automatic update automatically provides updates to the program

5.1.17. Some operating systems are designed to work with a server on a network

5.1.18. A server operating system organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share resources on a network

5.1.19. A network administrator uses the server operating system to

5.1.19.1. Add and remove users, computers, and other devices

5.1.19.2. Install software and administer network security

5.1.20. Each user has a user account

5.1.20.1. A user name, or user ID, identifies a specific user

5.1.20.2. A password is a private combination of characters associated with the user name

6. Stand-Alone Operating Systems

6.1. A stand-alone operating system is a complete operating system that works on a desktop computer, notebook computer, or mobile computing device

6.1.1. Windows Vista

6.1.2. Mac OS X

6.1.3. UNIX

6.1.4. Linux

6.2. Windows Vista is Microsoft’s fastest, most efficient operating system to date and is available in multiple editions

6.2.1. Windows Vista Home Basic

6.2.2. Windows Vista Home Premium

6.2.3. Windows Vista Ultimate

6.2.4. Windows Vista Business

6.3. Windows Vista provides programs such as

6.3.1. Windows Firewall

6.3.2. Windows Messenger

6.3.3. Windows Media Player

6.3.4. Windows Sidebar

6.4. The Macintosh operating system has set the standard for operating system ease of use

6.4.1. Latest version is Mac OS X

6.5. UNIX is a multitasking operating system developed in the early 1970s

6.6. Linux is an open-source, popular, multitasking UNIX-type operating system

7. Server Operating Systems

7.1. Windows Server 2008

7.2. UNIX

7.3. Linux

7.4. Solaris

7.5. Windows Server 2008 is an upgrade to Windows Server 2003

7.5.1. Part of the Windows Server 2008 family

7.5.2. Multiple editions

7.6. Most editions include Hyper-V, a virtualization technology

7.6.1. Virtualization is the practice of sharing or pooling computing resources

8. Embedded Operating Systems

8.1. An embedded operating system resides on a ROM chip on a mobile device or consumer electronic device

8.1.1. Windows Embedded CE

8.1.2. Windows Mobile

8.1.3. Palm OS

8.1.4. iPhone OS

8.1.5. Blackberry

8.1.6. Embedded Linux

8.1.7. Symbian OS

9. Utility Programs

9.1. A utility program is a type of system software that allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks

9.2. A file manager is a utility that performs functions related to file management

9.2.1. Displaying a list of files

9.2.2. Organizing files in folders

9.2.3. Copying, renaming, deleting, moving, and sorting files and folders

9.2.4. Creating shortcuts

9.3. A search utility is a program that attempts to locate a file on your computer based on criteria you specify

9.4. An image viewer allows users to display, copy, and print the contents of a graphics file

9.5. An uninstaller removes a program, as well as any associated entries in the system files

9.6. A disk cleanup utility searches for and removes unnecessary files

9.6.1. Downloaded program files

9.6.2. Temporary Internet files

9.6.3. Deleted files

9.6.4. Unused program files

9.7. A disk defragmenter reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer’s hard disk so that the operating system accesses data more quickly and programs run faster

9.7.1. Defragmenting

9.8. A backup utility allows users to copy files to another storage medium

9.9. A restore utility reverses the process and returns backed up files to their original form

9.10. A screen saver causes a display device’s screen to show a moving image or blank screen if no activity occurs for a specified time

9.11. A personal firewall detects and protects a personal computer from unauthorized intrusions

9.12. A virus describes a potentially damaging computer program that affects a computer negatively

9.13. A worm copies itself repeatedly in memory or over a network

9.14. A Trojan horse hides within or looks like a legitimate program

9.15. An antivirus program protects a computer against viruses

9.16. Spyware is a program placed on a computer without the user’s knowledge that secretly collects information about the user

9.16.1. A spyware remover detects and deletes spyware and other similar programs

9.17. Adware displays an online advertisement in a banner or pop-up window

9.17.1. An adware remover is a program that detects and deletes adware

9.18. Filters are programs that remove or block certain items from being displayed

9.18.1. Web filters

9.18.2. Anti-spam programs

9.18.3. Phishing filters

9.18.4. Pop-up blockers

9.19. A file compression utility shrinks the size of a file(s)

9.19.1. Compressing files frees up room on the storage media

9.19.2. Two types of compression

9.19.2.1. Lossy

9.19.2.2. Lossless

9.20. Compressed files sometimes are called zipped files

9.20.1. Can be uncompressed

9.21. A media player allows you to view images and animation, listen to audio, and watch video files on your computer

9.22. Disc burning software writes text, graphics, audio, and video files on a recordable or rewritable optical disc

9.23. A personal computer maintenance utility identifies and fixes operating system problems, detects and repairs disk problems, and includes the capability of improving a computer’s performance

10. Summary

10.1. Definition of an operating system

10.2. Functions common to most operating systems

10.3. Variety of stand-alone operating systems, server operating systems, and embedded operating systems

10.4. Several utility programs

11. New node