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Operating System and Utility Programs by Mind Map: Operating System and Utility
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Operating System and Utility Programs

Objectives Overview

Define system software and identify the two types of system software

Describe the functions of an operating system

Summarize the startup process on a personal computer

Summarize the features of several stand-alone operating systems

Briefly describe various server operating systems

Summarize the features of several embedded operating systems

Explain the purpose of several utility programs

System Software

Operating systems

Utility Programs

Operating Systems

An operating system (OS) is a set of programs containing instructions that work together to coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources

Start and shut down a computer

Provide a user interface

Manage programs

Manage memory

Coordinate tasks

Configure devices

Establish an Internet connection

Monitor performance

Provide utilities

Automatically update

Control a network

Administer security

Operating System Functions

Cold boot

Warm boot

Operating System Functions

A boot drive is the drive from which your computer starts

You can boot from a boot disk

A recovery disk contains a few system files that will start the computer

An operating system includes various shut down options, Sleep mode saves any open documents and programs to RAM, turns off all unneeded functions, and then places the computer in a low-power state, Hibernate saves any open documents and programs to a hard disk before removing power from the computer

A user interface controls how you enter data and instructions and how information is displayed on the screen

With a graphical user interface (GUI), you interact with menus and visual images

With a command-line interface, a user uses the keyboard to enter data and instructions

How an operating system handles programs directly affects your productivity, Single user and multiuser, Single tasking and multitasking, Foreground and background, Preemptive multitasking, Multiprocessing

Memory management optimizes the use of RAM

Virtual memory is a portion of a storage medium functioning as additional RAM

The operating system determines the order in which tasks are processed

A driver is a small program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device

Plug and Play automatically configures new devices as you install them

Operating systems typically provide a means to establish Internet connections

A performance monitor is a program that assesses and reports information about various computer resources and devices

Operating systems often provide users with the capability of, Managing files, Searching for files, Viewing images, Securing a computer, Uninstalling programs, Cleaning up disks, Defragmenting disks, Diagnosing problems, Backing up files and disks, Setting up screen savers

Automatic update automatically provides updates to the program

Some operating systems are designed to work with a server on a network

A server operating system organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share resources on a network

A network administrator uses the server operating system to, Add and remove users, computers, and other devices, Install software and administer network security

Each user has a user account, A user name, or user ID, identifies a specific user, A password is a private combination of characters associated with the user name

Stand-Alone Operating Systems

A stand-alone operating system is a complete operating system that works on a desktop computer, notebook computer, or mobile computing device

Windows Vista

Mac OS X



Windows Vista is Microsoft’s fastest, most efficient operating system to date and is available in multiple editions

Windows Vista Home Basic

Windows Vista Home Premium

Windows Vista Ultimate

Windows Vista Business

Windows Vista provides programs such as

Windows Firewall

Windows Messenger

Windows Media Player

Windows Sidebar

The Macintosh operating system has set the standard for operating system ease of use

Latest version is Mac OS X

UNIX is a multitasking operating system developed in the early 1970s

Linux is an open-source, popular, multitasking UNIX-type operating system

Server Operating Systems

Windows Server 2008




Windows Server 2008 is an upgrade to Windows Server 2003

Part of the Windows Server 2008 family

Multiple editions

Most editions include Hyper-V, a virtualization technology

Virtualization is the practice of sharing or pooling computing resources

Embedded Operating Systems

An embedded operating system resides on a ROM chip on a mobile device or consumer electronic device

Windows Embedded CE

Windows Mobile

Palm OS

iPhone OS


Embedded Linux

Symbian OS

Utility Programs

A utility program is a type of system software that allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks

A file manager is a utility that performs functions related to file management

Displaying a list of files

Organizing files in folders

Copying, renaming, deleting, moving, and sorting files and folders

Creating shortcuts

A search utility is a program that attempts to locate a file on your computer based on criteria you specify

An image viewer allows users to display, copy, and print the contents of a graphics file

An uninstaller removes a program, as well as any associated entries in the system files

A disk cleanup utility searches for and removes unnecessary files

Downloaded program files

Temporary Internet files

Deleted files

Unused program files

A disk defragmenter reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer’s hard disk so that the operating system accesses data more quickly and programs run faster


A backup utility allows users to copy files to another storage medium

A restore utility reverses the process and returns backed up files to their original form

A screen saver causes a display device’s screen to show a moving image or blank screen if no activity occurs for a specified time

A personal firewall detects and protects a personal computer from unauthorized intrusions

A virus describes a potentially damaging computer program that affects a computer negatively

A worm copies itself repeatedly in memory or over a network

A Trojan horse hides within or looks like a legitimate program

An antivirus program protects a computer against viruses

Spyware is a program placed on a computer without the user’s knowledge that secretly collects information about the user

A spyware remover detects and deletes spyware and other similar programs

Adware displays an online advertisement in a banner or pop-up window

An adware remover is a program that detects and deletes adware

Filters are programs that remove or block certain items from being displayed

Web filters

Anti-spam programs

Phishing filters

Pop-up blockers

A file compression utility shrinks the size of a file(s)

Compressing files frees up room on the storage media

Two types of compression, Lossy, Lossless

Compressed files sometimes are called zipped files

Can be uncompressed

A media player allows you to view images and animation, listen to audio, and watch video files on your computer

Disc burning software writes text, graphics, audio, and video files on a recordable or rewritable optical disc

A personal computer maintenance utility identifies and fixes operating system problems, detects and repairs disk problems, and includes the capability of improving a computer’s performance


Definition of an operating system

Functions common to most operating systems

Variety of stand-alone operating systems, server operating systems, and embedded operating systems

Several utility programs

New node