Krashen’s Five Hypotheses

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Krashen’s Five Hypotheses by Mind Map: Krashen’s Five Hypotheses

1. The Natural Order Hypothesis

1.1. According to this hypothesis, language learners acquire rather than learn the rules of language in a predictable sequence.

1.2. Certain grammatical features, or morphemes tend to be acquired early, whereas others tend to be acquired late.

2. The Input Hypothesis

2.1. According to the input hypothesis, second language acquisition is the direct result of learners' understanding the target language in natural communication situations.

2.2. Input must be understandable.

2.3. Input must contain grammatical structures that are just a bit above the learners current linguistic knowledge.

2.4. Input must be part of naturally flowing language, used for authentic and purposeful communication. Acquirers are able to understand with the help of context, pictures, and gestures.

3. The Affective Filter Hypothesis

3.1. Addresses affective or social-emotional variables related to second language acquisition.

3.2. The most important affective variables are a low anxiety learning environment, student motivation, self-confidence, and self-esteem.

3.3. Allowing students a silent period to acquire knowledge by listening.

4. The Acquisition/Learning Hypothesis

4.1. Focuses on communication, not accuracy of form.

4.2. Krashen asserts that there is a distinct difference between acquiring and learning a 2nd language.

5. The Monitor Hypothesis

5.1. Krashen proposes that the formal study of language leads to the development of an internal grammar editor or monitor.

5.2. Krashen believes knowing the rules only helps polish a student's language learning.

5.3. Krashen argues that the focus of language teaching should be communication, not rule learning.