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Creative Schools by Mind Map: Creative Schools

1. Chapter 2: The current education system was designed to meet the needs of the Industrial Revolution.

1.1. Interests like the need for an army of manual laborers, clerical and administrative workers, and a small professional class shaped the structure and organizational principles of mass education. Hence, the system is built like a pyramid, with "compulsory elementary education for all, a smaller sector of secondary ed, and a narrow apex of higher education."

1.2. Purpose of industrial manufacturing is to produce mass quantities of the same product, so the industrial process demands compliance with specific rules and standards. Hence, not everyone makes the cut.

1.3. Compliance is crucial in mass production, and we see this in our education system, as well, as there is little room for non-conformity in regards to academic performance.

2. Chapter 6 In order to fulfill the economic, cultural, social, and personal purposes of education, the curriculum should promote 8 competencies. These are curiosity, creativity, criticism, communication, collaboration, compassion, composure, and citizenship.

2.1. The conventional curriculum is based on discrete subjects and there is an hierarchy as to the perceived importance of these subjects. This hasn't been working so far.

2.2. Each of the 8 C's is relevant to the purpose of education.

2.3. The 8 C's align well with 21st century skills.

2.4. These competencies should be taught and refined throughout students' careers/

3. Chapter 7 The standards movement has had disastrous consequences on education.

3.1. Standardized testing has become an obsession, and it begins to define the curriculum.

3.2. Because they have to be administered on such a large scale, the tests focus on limited forms of response i.e. multiple choice

3.3. Pressure to boost test scores has reduced range of assessments teachers use.

3.4. Some schools neglect children who are not within range of passing, and those kids who are stronger learners, as they focus on getting children on the cusp of passing to score higher.

3.5. SAT scores - some colleges reducing their importance in admissions, and studies show high school GPA is a better indicator of college performance.

4. Chapter 9 Engaged parents and community are key components of a successful school.

4.1. Parents' engagement has a direct relationship to motivation and achievement, regardless of socio-economic status or cultural background.

4.2. University of Chicago 2010 report found that in low-income schools elementary schools with strong family engagement, students are 10 times more likely to improve in math, and 4 times more likely to improve in reading compared to schools with lower family involvement. Moreover, the study identified parent-community engagement as one of the 5 essential supports for successful reform.

4.3. Families in Schools, led by Oscar Cruz, unites parents, students, and educators together, and has launched initiatives like the Million Word Challenge and Read With Me.

4.4. Home-schooled students, who receive the highest level of parental involvement, tend to outperform peers on academic achievement tests and the SAT.

5. Chapter 1: The reform movement that has gained the most traction is the standards movement.

5.1. The focus on raising academic standards does little to prepare students for the real world.

5.2. The basic strategy involves standardizing curriculum, teaching, and assessment. This has resulted in an emphasis on academic subjects over practical disciplines, instruction of factual information and whole-class teaching instead of group learning, and formal multiple-choice tests instead of authentic, practical assessments.

5.3. Testing increases competition between students, teachers, and schools to drive up standards.

5.4. Governments are encouraging private corporations to invest in schools.

6. Chapter 1:The standards movement has far-reaching negative effects on society.

6.1. Scores in targeted disciplines have barely improved.

6.2. Children leave school unprepared for work; youth unemployment is at record levels, globally.

6.3. College degrees are often "expensive irrelevance."

6.4. Schools are not producing graduates who display adaptability to change and creativity in generating new ideas.

6.5. The forms of education standards movement promotes is exacerbating the income gap.

6.6. Students are more anxious and disengaged.

7. Chapter 6 A balanced curriculum should give equal status and resources to a variety of disciplines in order to cater to the interests and strengths of all learners.

7.1. The idea of a discipline as opposed to a subject opens the door for interdisciplinary work.

7.2. The disciplines are dynamic and relevant outside of school.

7.3. Design thinking - problem-based. Big Picture Learning - students spend considerable time outside of school, in community learning in real-world situations.

7.4. Curriculum should allow for student choice, real-world application, emphasis on process, and provide students with a sense of audience.

8. Chapter 2: Reformers should adopt a new model which respects the organic nature of education in order to meet the needs of today's society.

8.1. Organic farming metaphor - education should promote health of whole-student, recognize interdependence of aspects of development, cultivate talents of all children, and create optimum conditions for development.

8.2. Education should promote students' economic independence by cultivating learners' diversity of talents, dissolving boundaries between academic and vocational studies, and providing students with hands-on experience in work environments.

8.3. Education should promote students' own cultural appreciation, as well as their tolerance and appreciation of other cultures.

8.4. Education should instill in students civic responsibility.

8.5. Education should enable learners to engage with the internal and external worlds.

9. Chapter 8 For a school to flourish, it needs a leader who brings vision, skill, and an understanding of enticing learning environments.

9.1. Boston Arts Academy has a high percentage of students living in poverty, yet headmaster Anne Clark created an environment where the arts are valued, a variety of assessments are used, and 94% of graduates go on to college.

9.2. Building community among teachers, parents, students, and staff is essential to creating an environment in which students want to learn

9.3. In order to create an environment in which students want to learn, change should be gradual. "You have to build the context and capacity within your community to take on ideas that don't feel threatening." - RIchard Gerver of Grangetown

9.4. Grangetown started with after-school program, gradually evolved into school program.

10. Chapter 3 Education systems are complex and continuously adapting.

10.1. The system consists of a variety of interest groups, and there are many systems within the system that are constantly interacting. Each component of the system has its own special interests.

10.2. There is diversity within and between education systems. Each school has its own rituals, culture, and community of unique people.

10.3. Digital technologies are transforming teaching and learning. New digital tools are created everyday that can personalize learning for every student.

10.4. Stakeholders are pushing back against standards movement by homeschooling and un-schooling children.

10.5. High school graduates are reconsidering the value of college degrees.

11. Chapter 8 "Sustaining a vibrant culture of learning is the essential role of the principal."

11.1. Principal understanding of habits and habitats and how they affect each other impacts student learning. ex. High Tech High

11.2. Jean Hendrickson's positive influence on high poverty school began with cleaning up building and doubling arts and music time, and employed A+ initiative.

11.3. David Angel of Clark, in which students have out-of-school authentic learning opportunities in their communities, has adapted school system to fit needs of students and society.

11.4. NASSP framework, which provides framework that school leaders can follow to personalize a program specific to its needs, and promotes collaborative leadership, personalizing school environment, and curriculum, instruction, and assessment to improve student performance.

12. Chapter 3 Because of the adaptive and complex nature of schools, it is possible to affect change from the ground-up.

12.1. Because the relationship between student and teacher is the heart of education, and has a profound influence over learning, teachers have tremendous power to affect change.

12.2. At its most basic level, education must first focus on creating the conditions in which students will want and be able to learn.

12.3. Arts in Schools project example - schools took Robinson's suggestions for change, and implemented in a way that was tailored to their particular situations. Hundreds of schools in the U.K. put recommendations into action in a way that suited the needs of their schools.

12.4. Once optimal conditions are in place, teachers can facilitate learning, principals can facilitate teachers' abilities to fulfill these roles, and policymakers can create conditions in which principals and schools can fulfill these responsibilities.

13. Chapter 4 Children have immense natural capacity to learn, and instead of capitalizing on this innate ability, the structure and conventions of the school system results in struggling learners.

13.1. Sugata Mitra's experiment - he installed a computer in New Delhi slum, and children learned how to use it without any instruction.

13.2. Emphasis on propositional knowledge over procedural knowledge means students who can keep up excel, while those who lag behind become disaffected.

13.3. Example of Robinson's sister, Lena, who didn't have opportunity to pursue and capitalize on her strengths, due to lack of personalization.

13.4. Emergence of free schools - Everton Free School helps students develop their natural abilities by moving beyond "narrow confines of academicism" to more personalized approach.

14. Chapter 9 Schools should be proactive in cultivating and sustaining family engagement.

14.1. Families in Schools provides PD to staff so they learn how to make families feel welcomed and valued.

14.2. Families in Schools supports the creation of culturally relevant materials for families.

14.3. They advocate for policy change that will support greater family engagement.

14.4. PTA has even created standards which serve as a framework for schools to cultivate and sustain involvement and relationships with parents.

15. Chapter 4 Intelligence is complex and multi-faceted, and education should be personalized to each child in order to help him/her discover and develop his/her strengths and interests.

15.1. The system should enable students with flexibility within the curriculum for learners to pursue own interests/talents.

15.2. Adapt the schedule to accommodate for the fact that not all students learn at the same rate.

15.3. Devise a broad range of assessments that accounts for children's multiple intelligence.

15.4. Allow time for play as it's nature's means of insuring that young learn the skills they'll need in adulthood.

16. Chapter 10 Policymakers have a profound influence on educational reform.

16.1. Transform SC and New Carolina initiative involved the community, then helped failing schools shift towards more personalized education, PBL, and the organization also advocates for schools in the legislature.

16.2. Jimmie Don Aycock, with the unanimous passing of House Bill 5 in Texas modified graduation requirements to include reducing the number of state tests students have to take, as well as recognizing alternative paths to graduation.

16.3. Silvina Grvirtz of Argentina spearheaded an initiative to involve communities in school improvement, reducing the dropout rate from 30% tto 1% and the repetition rate from 20% to 0.5%.

16.4. Jiang Xuegin founded a new school in Shenzhen where students don't take the gaokao, but instead write, run a coffee shop and newspaper, and participate in community service.

17. Chapter 5 Teaching is more than a job - it is an art form, and artful teachers strike a balance between traditional and progressive approaches to facilitate student learning.

17.1. They communicate high expectations for students' performance, and leverage the power of their relationship with the students to promote achievement.

17.2. Artful teachers create conditions in which students want to learn.

17.3. Masterful teachers enable learning by adapting strategies to needs and opportunities of the moment.

17.4. Empower students by serving as a mentor, providing access to rigor, and helping them find sense of direction. (Jose Urbina ENLACE performance).

18. Chapter 10 Though the conditions necessary for successful school reform are clear, there are many obstacles to transformational change.

18.1. Risk-aversion - schools are reluctant to give students enough autonomy to take risks.

18.2. Right-wing political influence which favors values of capitalism, and favors the break up of the public education system.

18.3. Apathetic politicians who use test scores as leverage during election cycles

18.4. Politicians who assume the command and control approach as opposed to the climate control approach.

19. Chapter 5 Teachers should employ creative and innovative instructional strategies.

19.1. Khan Academy - Sal Khan's use of screencasts provides learner with agency over time, place, and pace. Khan Academy has been so impactful, it's now used by millions.

19.2. Link industry to education to make it relevant for students. For example, Store Van generated excitement about music by connecting students with tools to produce music, and professional musicians.

19.3. Use instructional strategies that entertain children. For example, AsapSCIENCE videos use humor, graphics, experiments to engage learners.

19.4. Teachers should have access to training that includes hands-on experience in the schools, as well as traditional training in order to equip them to deliver creative instruction.

20. Chapter 7 Schools should move toward a more holistic assessment process that takes into account many forms of evidence, including participation, portfolios, essays, and other media.

20.1. The success of TheLearning Record assessment model, based on Vygotsky's work, and that used developmental scales

20.2. Assessment should occur in real time and include student reflection on own thinking.

20.3. Surrey, B.C. Model in which teacher works with students to define individual goal and markers of progress.

20.4. Assessment should motivate students, provide information on achievement, and set clear standards.