What I know about educational psychology

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What I know about educational psychology by Mind Map: What I know about educational psychology

1. cognitive development

1.1. schemes: ways of understanding the world

1.1.1. assimilation

1.1.1.1. accomidation

1.1.1.1.1. equilibrium> disequilibrium> equilibration ( back and forth between the two= more complex understanding)

1.2. Piaget's stages>>

1.2.1. sensimotor

1.2.1.1. pre-operational

1.2.1.1.1. formal operational

1.3. conservation

1.3.1. control of variables

1.4. object permanence develops late in sensimotor stage

1.5. egocentrism: not able to separate own beliefs from logic or consider the perspectives of others.

1.6. Vygotsky>>

1.6.1. believed that adults help with cognitive development; not simply a natural occurance as Piaget believed

1.6.1.1. scaffolding

1.6.1.1.1. cognitive apprenticeship

1.6.2. congnition as a social activity that is later internalized and used independently

1.6.2.1. cognitive processes are steady and gradual as attention span increases

1.6.3. children listen to the opinion of others and adapt own thinking accordingly

1.6.4. young children use language to communicate not to express thoughts

1.6.5. self talk and private speech> later becomes internalised thought

1.6.6. actual development level

1.6.6.1. potential development level

1.6.6.1.1. proximal development level

2. nature versus nurture

2.1. genetics

2.1.1. milestones: some universal regardless of environment, e.g : abstract thinking

2.1.2. puberty

2.1.3. growth spurts

2.1.4. temperment

2.1.5. maturation

2.2. environment

2.2.1. poverty

2.2.2. malnurtrition

2.2.3. sensitive period: dramatic changes can happen based on environment. example: time when malnutrition would rapidly effect psychical growth

3. Classroom implications

3.1. learning styles

3.1.1. visual

3.1.1.1. kinethestic

3.1.1.1.1. oral

3.1.2. reflective learners: take time to think out answers

3.1.2.1. impulsive learners: answer right away without thinking it through. guess.

3.1.3. global analytic/ field analytic: from the whole to the parts> from the parts to the whole

3.1.3.1. dependent: ask teacher and peers a lot of questions

3.1.3.1.1. independent learners

3.2. learning disabilities

3.2.1. ADHD

3.2.1.1. autism

3.2.1.1.1. Anxiety

3.3. abilities based on developmental stage

3.4. expressive language: ability to communicate orally and written

3.4.1. receptive language: ability to understand written and oral language

3.5. metacognition: knowledge about own thought processes

3.6. constructivist theory: making own knowledge

3.7. types of classrooms

3.7.1. immersion

3.7.1.1. inclusive

3.7.1.2. special needs

3.8. How I want my classroom to be

3.8.1. creative

3.8.1.1. positive

3.8.1.1.1. everyone sharing their unique backgrounds throughout the learning process; incorporating their culture, background and experiences in their writing, presentations etc.

3.8.1.2. growth mindset versus fixed mindset

3.8.1.3. Sir Ken Robinson believed that successful companies need creative people but that schools are educating the creativity out of students

3.8.2. "group think" Students participating together in contributing multiple perspectives to find an answer/meaning. Coined by Margaret Scardamalia. Basically students scaffold each other.

3.8.2.1. how to create a community of learners video. Students teaching each other how to do math. Similar ages/abilities/world-view lead to better ways of explaining a problem.

3.8.3. Catering to multiple intelligence and learning style> in the video about the two teachers who collaborate, they accept answers out loud but they also leave five minutes at the end of class for the quiet students to write on padlet.

3.8.4. focusing on abilities "I can" rubrics

4. literacy traditions

4.1. video games

4.1.1. things that help us practice/develop literacy

4.1.2. social media

4.1.2.1. Generation LIKE video> expressing/developing identity through what you portray on social media

4.2. reading at home for fun

4.2.1. bedtime stories in childhood

4.3. games with friends as children where stories are told ( for example, stories being created with barbies)

4.4. what is literacy? literacy is the ability to read write and understand different types of texts ( movies, video games, books)

5. Marcia's 4 stages of identity formation

5.1. identity diffusion

5.1.1. not yet involved in making decisions for future; no exploration of identity

5.2. identity foreclosure

5.2.1. no active exploration/ identity crisis; taking other people's suggestions (parents, peers) in regards to identity; willing to make some commitment.

5.3. identity moratorium

5.3.1. actively having an identity crisis; exploring options in regards to job, religion, sexuality etc. no commitment yet.

5.4. identity achievement

5.4.1. went through the crisis and has no made a commitment

5.5. crisis

5.5.1. active exploration of identity; searching for a career, friends, job, religion, sexuality etc.

5.6. teachers can help by: allowing students to picture themselves in different careers, providing support through identity crisis and giving extra help and support to students with learning disabilities.

5.7. Not sequential! and can happen at any age

6. how identity affects learning

6.1. culture

6.1.1. literacy practices changes across cultures, different ways of thinking, uniqueness.

6.1.2. Cultural BIAS: some testing/ tasks are biased to certain cultures; they either offend or penalize some students for their gender, socio-economic status or ethnicity

6.2. socio- economics

6.2.1. lack of nutrition and ability to focus, tough home life etc. lack of learning resources such as school supplies, computer.

6.3. background

6.3.1. affects the meaning making process and how texts are read/interpreted

6.4. experiences

6.4.1. affects how student will react to the teacher, the subject and their peers.

6.5. self esteem

6.5.1. self-handicapping

6.5.1.1. learned helplessness

6.5.2. drive

6.5.2.1. being to hard on self

6.5.3. grades

6.5.3.1. ability to make friends

6.5.4. test anxiety

6.5.5. the way we explain our success and failures

6.6. mental health issues

6.6.1. social anxiety

6.6.1.1. anxiety

6.6.1.1.1. depression etc.

6.7. gender

6.7.1. effects how others will see you

6.7.1.1. societal expectations

6.7.1.1.1. self-worth

7. Erik Erikson

7.1. leader in the research/study of the psychological and identity formation of adolescents in the 1960s

8. types of assessment

8.1. ability test

8.2. high stakes testing

8.2.1. accountability: holding teachers responsible for the performance of students on high stakes tests

8.2.2. Test anxiety

8.2.2.1. IMPORTANT sOLUTIONS: INVOLVE STUDENTS IN THE ASSESSMENT PROCESS; GIVE MULTIPLE OPPORTUNITIES TO CORRECT ERRORS

8.2.2.1.1. RETAKES

8.3. standardized testing

8.4. formative assessment: just to check progress/understanding

8.4.1. testwiseness: the knowledge of how to take tests/exams and how it boosts performance

8.4.1.1. teachers should teach students how to take tests ( often don't)

8.4.2. informal assessment

8.4.2.1. assessment of verbal behaviors( discussion, questions, journals

8.4.2.1.1. assessment of non-verbal behaviors(physical skills, voluntary activities, body language)

8.5. Important to accommodate students with learning disabilities: SOLUTIONS:

8.5.1. MORE TIME

8.5.1.1. MODIFYING PRESENTATION OF EXAM: BRAILLE, ORALLY GIVEN, SIGN LANGUAGE.

8.5.1.1.1. SETTING: QUIET ROOM, ALONE

8.6. recognition tasks: identifying relevant information among irrelevant information (multiple choice for example)

8.6.1. Recall task: having to retrieve information from long term memory.

8.7. rubrics

8.7.1. I like the idea of making the rubric with the students and having them self-assess. In the video of the two teachers that work together they have a rubric that focuses on " I can statements"

8.7.2. Including students in assessment process

8.8. portfolio

9. Types of motivation

9.1. INTRINSIC: inner- motivation, pride, the desire to do well, sense of personal achievement

9.1.1. self-efficacy: the belief that one is capable

9.1.1.1. self determination: the belief that you can control the events of your life.

9.1.1.2. The video with the two collaborating teachers showed how the teachers used rubrics that said "I can..." focusing on abilities rather than deficits.

9.1.2. self comparison: comparing what you know now (capabilities, skills, knowledge) to what you used to know> wanting to be better than your past self

9.1.3. as students accomplish tough tasks they believe in abilities more and are eager to take on more.

9.1.4. expectancy: believing you will be successful in achieving goals.

9.1.5. Mastery goal: desire to acquire new skills

9.2. EXTRINSIC: outside-motivation, good grades, prizes, praise from teacher/peers.

9.2.1. comparison with others

9.2.2. desire to be liked, respected, praised.

9.2.3. competition

9.2.4. performance approach goal: to look good in front of others and receive positive feedback/ to not look bad

9.3. value: believing the task has value; that it isn't pointless( kids will often ask " why are we doing this")

9.3.1. interest; situational or personal

10. Neural plasticity

10.1. The ability of the mind to grow/ change and change back. A person is able to pave new neural pathways in the brain; they can become good at something through practice. pathways are not forever 'fixed" they can become stronger and be re-trained.

10.1.1. students learning about neural plasticity can improve their ability to perform a task; grades, skills etc.

10.1.1.1. fixed mindset: the belief that if you are born bad at something and that you will forever be bad at it. A lot of teachers, parents and students adopt a fixed mindset : " My son is bad at mad, I was always bad at math too, we just aren't born with that gene"

10.1.1.1.1. growth mindset: the belief that you can learn anything. you can become good at anything through practice ( paving new neural pathways)