Learning Theories

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Learning Theories by Mind Map: Learning Theories

1. UDL - Universal Design for Learning

1.1. Knowledge

1.1.1. Everyone is different; and we need to meet our kids where they are in order to provide the correct supports to grow and learn.

1.2. Learning

1.2.1. Representation - activate background and show information in different ways.

1.2.2. Action and Expression - Allow them to show what they know through models and various other presentations. Also provide feedback and support at various levels to meet diverse needs. Assessment has various modes as well. The two main modes are formative and summative. Feedback is essential to growth as well to give kids specific and actionable items to work on. Checks for understanding should also be embedded into lessons.

1.2.3. Engagement - provide various ways to engage to meet diverse needs.

1.3. How Theory Informs

1.4. Instruction:

1.4.1. What do I want kids to know?

1.4.2. How do I want them to know through various modes of learning mentioned above.

1.5. 40 members of a "cast" based in Boston. They are a non-profit educational research company.

2. Constructivism

2.1. Dewey, Breuner, Vygotsky and Piaget

2.1.1. Dewey; argued that learning should be grounded in experience rather than rote memorization.

2.1.2. Piaget learning is dynamic stages that people do to test a changing reality through development and they construct through creating and testing their theories of the world. Piaget argued that social context had nothing to do with learning and could be separated..

2.1.3. Bruner believed in constructing knowledge as well and an instructor needs to make sure a “student is willing and able to learn (readiness) ; structure curriculum to be easily grasped by students (spiral); and instruction should fill in the gaps and allow for extrapolation (go beyond info given).”

2.1.4. Vygotsky argued that learning had a great deal to do with social context 2x ; within the child and between the child and others. He argued that “” all the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals”” and that social context give way to voluntary attention to material being taught.

2.2. Knowledge

2.2.1. Students construct their knowledge through experience and activity in specific activities.

2.3. Learning: Students need to learn with growth mindset and develop their thinking through problem solving in real world situations.

2.4. How Theory Informs: Constructivism was is important to education because students always remember what they do rather than what they listen to.

2.4.1. nnovative to education in the early 1900's when we were moving from a agricultural school (one room school house) to and industrial age schooling. Employees needed to do things in factories and be able to problem solve with new situations that would arise.

2.5. Instruction

2.5.1. Students are given real world problems then experiment on how to solve them.

3. 4 Key Design Lenses on How Students Learn (HSL)

3.1. Donovan and Bransford

3.2. 4 lenses for knowledge

3.2.1. Learner-centered lens wants the learner to identify misconceptions in order to reorganize info into correct categories.

3.2.2. Knowledge-centered lens is about what is taught, why it is taught and what mastery looks like (Fishman & Dedep27)

3.2.3. Assessment-centered lens focuses on how the student is evaluated on attainment of knowledge; and it should be frequent to provide info on feedback loop.

3.2.4. Community - Centered lens represents a culture of respect and risk taking to learn.

3.3. Learning Principles

3.3.1. Build Background and activate schema by "engaging initial understandings" (Fishman & Dede p26).

3.3.2. Students must have 3 things to develop competence in a subject. Have a large knowledge base of facts and ideas in that subject. A deep understanding of facts in its framework Organize those facts in a way that allows retrieval and application.

3.3.3. Have meta-cognitive knowledge about how and what they are learning to monitor their own progress.

3.4. How Theory Informs:

3.4.1. Using the How Students Learn Theory helps teachers in developing sound lesson formats that allow for knowledge to actually be retained by students rather than just learned and forgotten.

3.5. Instruction

3.5.1. Lesson set up example. Start with asking "What would happen in this situation?" to assess background. Then delve into experiments and hypothesis to form opinions and answers. Elaborate on experiments to extend learning. Finally, re-assess with the same diagnostic or similar tool to see what kids attained at the end of the lesson.