Manual Scavenging in India

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Manual Scavenging in India by Mind Map: Manual Scavenging in India

1. Why in News

1.1. Deaths

1.1.1. Cleaning

1.1.1.1. Septic tanks

1.1.1.2. Sewage treatment plants

1.2. Need

1.2.1. Better understanding

1.2.1.1. Manual scavenger problems

1.2.2. Address

1.2.2.1. challenges

1.2.2.1.1. implementation

2. What is Manual Scavenging?

2.1. Manually handling

2.1.1. Human excreta

2.2. using most basic tools

2.2.1. Buckets

2.2.2. Brooms

2.2.3. Baskets

2.3. linked to

2.3.1. Caste system

2.3.1.1. low castes

2.3.1.1.1. perform this job

3. Issues

3.1. Poorest & most disadvantaged

3.2. Does work

3.2.1. without safety equipment

3.2.1.1. = risk

3.2.1.1.1. infections

3.2.1.1.2. asphyxiations

3.2.1.1.3. deaths

3.3. Their children

3.3.1. no education

3.4. Social

3.4.1. inequality

3.4.2. exclusion

3.5. Mostly women

3.5.1. in this job

3.5.1.1. due to patriarchy

3.5.2. paid meager

4. Why still exist?

4.1. insanitary latrines

4.1.1. no water

4.1.1.1. = manual cleaning

4.2. social stigma

4.2.1. = can't get other job

4.3. Urbanization

4.3.1. = High sewers & septic tanks

4.4. Low

4.4.1. awareness

4.4.1.1. Rights

4.4.1.2. Laws

4.4.1.3. Job risks

4.4.2. self-esteem

4.5. Lack of empathy

4.5.1. employers

4.6. Existing laws

4.6.1. poor enforcement

4.7. Manual scavengers

4.7.1. Not an organised group

4.7.1.1. = No voice to raise their issue

5. Measures taken

5.1. 1993 ban

5.2. 2013 Act

5.2.1. Prohibits employing

5.2.1.1. manual scavenging

5.2.2. Mechanised cleaning

5.2.2.1. septic tanks

5.2.3. safety gear

5.2.3.1. mandatory

5.2.3.1.1. unavoidable human intervention

5.2.4. Punishment

5.2.4.1. 2 years jail

5.2.4.2. fine

5.2.4.3. or both

5.2.5. prohibits

5.2.5.1. insanitary latrines

5.2.5.1.1. construction

5.2.6. Implementing authorities

5.2.6.1. District magistrate

5.2.6.2. Local authority

5.3. Self-Employment Scheme for Rehabilitation of Manual Scavengers

5.3.1. 2007

5.3.2. Responsibility

5.3.2.1. National Safai Karmacharis Finance & Development Corporation (NSKFDC)

5.4. Swachh Bharat Mission

5.4.1. Insanitary -> Sanitary Latrines

5.5. Pre-matric scholarship Scheme

5.5.1. to their children

5.6. SC judgement

5.6.1. deaths

5.6.1.1. = Rs 10 lakh compensation

5.7. Technology challenge

5.7.1. Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs

5.7.2. to eliminate human intervention

5.8. NGOs

5.8.1. Safai Karmachari Andolan

5.8.2. Association for Rural & Urban Needy

5.8.3. JANVIKAS

6. Implementation issues

6.1. Manual Scavenging

6.1.1. still continues

6.2. NSKFDC

6.2.1. No proper functioning

6.3. 2013 Act

6.3.1. Protective gears

6.3.1.1. not provided

6.3.1.1.1. by employers

6.3.2. not defined

6.3.2.1. What is protective gears?

6.3.2.1.1. = exploited

6.3.3. No accountability mechanism

6.4. Local bodies

6.4.1. No fund

6.4.1.1. buy machines

6.4.1.2. safety gears

6.4.2. blame contractors

6.4.2.1. for deaths

6.5. States/UTs

6.5.1. slow in identification

6.5.1.1. insanitary latrines

6.5.1.2. manual scavenger

6.5.2. hesitate in reporting

6.5.2.1. due to fear

6.5.2.1.1. contempt of court

6.6. Slow rehabilitation works due to

6.6.1. Lack of budgetary support

6.6.2. Manual scavengers

6.6.2.1. uneducated

6.6.2.2. No exposure

6.6.2.2.1. other works

6.6.2.3. many are old

6.6.2.4. lack confidence

6.6.2.5. not coming forward

6.6.2.5.1. avail skill training

6.6.3. Banks

6.6.3.1. unwilling to give loans

7. Way forward

7.1. Alternative livelihood

7.1.1. through

7.1.1.1. skill development

7.1.1.2. job training

7.2. Community awareness

7.3. local administration

7.3.1. sensitization

7.3.2. performance appraisal

7.3.3. rewarding

7.4. leadership among MS community

7.5. Improve education

7.5.1. their children

7.6. Old sanitary facilities

7.6.1. demolish

7.6.2. rebuild

7.7. Improve self-esteem

7.8. Political will

7.8.1. end Manual scavenging

7.9. New alternatives

7.9.1. Bio-toilets

7.10. Social persuasion

7.10.1. Social media

7.10.2. Newspapers

7.10.3. Plays

7.10.4. advertising

7.11. Strike root cause

7.11.1. caste system