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Theoretical Frameworks for Learning by Mind Map: Theoretical Frameworks for
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Theoretical Frameworks for Learning

What is Learning? a process that brings together cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences and experiences for acquiring, enhancing, or making changes in one's knowledge, skills, values, and world views


B.F. Skinner

B.F. Skinner: Learning is measuring observable behavior, no reliance on inner thought processes. Learning is the acquisition of new behavior through conditioning. Focuses on a new behavioral pattern being repeated until it becomes automatic

Environment shapes behavior

Association - links between our behavior & the reinforcement (reward or punishment), Example: the Skinner Box

Teaching & ICTs

Teaching is behavior modification

Behaviorist approach: breaks a task down into a series of simple steps

Management of class behavior

Reinforcements to change student behavior (rewards and punishments)

SOFTWARE, Drill and practice software, “programmed instruction” rewards a correct answer, Tutorial software, to make learning efficient, especially memorizing basics


build Internal Conceptual frameworks

Jean Piaget, Theoretical Basis: the thought process behind the behavior, Changes in Behavior : only as an indicator to what is going on in the learner's head, Memory system: an active, organized processor of information, Example: Atkinson-Shiffrin model, Prior Knowledge: plays an important role in learning

Teaching & ICTs, Ask interesting questions, Use multi-media to attract attention of students, Present content, Highlight important points and relate to existing knowledge, Practice exercises for moving knowledge from Short Term Memory to Long Term Memory, Rehearsal, Feedback, Example: Learning Model of Cognitivism

Gagne, Conditions for Learning, Five Categories of Learning, Develop: Intelligent Computer-based Tutors (AI), Hierarchical "events of instruction" – progressing from simple tasks to more complex problem solving exercises, Nine Instructional Events


Constructivism: Learning is a personal interpretation of the world. Learning is an active process in which meaning is developed on the basis of experience.

Jean Piaget

knowledge is actively constructed by the mind of the learner, Piaget active learner

knowledge is constructed from experience (accommodation and assimilation), Kolb's Cycle of Experiential Learning

Social Constructivism, Learning happens & Interactive, Example:Seymour Papert of MIT Media Lab, Theory Source, social negotiation of meaning, Example: Social Negotiation of Meaning, sharing of multiple perspectives, Example:Salmon Model, changing of internal representations through collaborative learning, Teaching & ICTs, Learning: be situated in realistic settings, Testing: be integrated with the task and not a separate activity, Teachers: guide and facilitate (not impose), Methods& Materials:be available to suit individual learning styles / potential, Learning Activities:be collaborative, with a group construction of knowledge, Community of Practice: create a small organizational culture of shared artifacts, with shared meanings, Vygotsky, Zone of Proximal Development(ZPD), ZPD Model, the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she can do with help, Scaffolding is a more modern term, guided learning via focused questions and positive interactions, Laurillard, Conversational framework