CREATORS!!!! Sarah Thompson Katie Norchi Claire Dezell Chelsea Jackson
What is now Yucatan, Guatemala, Belize and southern mexico
volcanic mountains, which comprised the highlands in the South, to a porous limestone shelf, known as the Lowlands, in the central and northern regions
Lowlands- produced crops
Highlands- source of metals
Itzamna, main god, brought his people maize and cacao and taught them script, healing, and the use of calendars, superhuman strength, stamina, vitality and resistance to injury. He also has the ability to tap into and manipulate mystical energies on the level of Zeus, Odin or Osiris
Kukulcan, god of resurrection and reincarnation, god of four elements, earth, water fire, air
Chac, rain god, associated with the wind god, Kukulcan
Sacrifices, Bloodletting was a Mayan practice. Bloodletting is the cutting (not necessarily killing) of a person or animal to release blood. Source of blood dependent on the desired outcome of the ritual., Small animals were used for smaller requests and big animals were used for more grand rituals., Ex: Seventeen jaguars were sacrificed to dedicate a temple altar in the city of Copan.
Methods, Cutting throat, disemboweling, casting into a well, cutting open chest and removing a still beating heart.
Reasons, Bring rain, increase crops, and dedicate temples and ball courts.
Much like modern day basketball
Winning captain would be decapitated. Considered a great honor. Winner would get a direct ticket to heaven instead of going through the 13 steps that the Mayan's believed they had to go through in order to reach heaven..
The field, size of football field, is bordered by two imposing walls 26 feet tall. Seven combatants on each team tried to get a small rubber ball to go through a small stone hoop 23 feet above the ground without using their hands or feet to touch the ball.
Made of Limestone and clay
Two types of Pyramids, Ones that where not meant to be climed, Ones that were meant to be climed, These where used for religious reasons
Used as landmarks, and sometimes a burial for high ranking Officials
Limestone and clay
were important to their ritual value
priest would preform their sacrifical ritual on these temples
Behind the plat form would be a picture of the god of that city
Each mayan city had one
Made out of organic material, Straw, Mud, Clay, Stone, Wood
Mostly done in their books
On stone, walls, clothing, pottery, rocks ,and sometimes jade
Mainly painted on their wars, depressions and ceremonies
Most important for apperance
Different colors of body paint, Priest wore blue, Warriors wore red and black, and the youth wore white
A multitude of separate entities
Only priests/rulers/kings were allowed to be in the temples.
The priests lived in huge palaces.
Priests in small villages were the godfathers and assisted in births.
Priests led ceremonies like ch'acak to please the gods.ew node
the bow and arrow, blowguns, spears, axes, knives with blades of volcanic glass , and spear-throwing slings called ‘atatls’.
Farmers would give up their crop or salt, honey, cloth, or domestic animals to the government as taxes. Mayan economy was mostly based on agriculture. They also used these items to trade for other goods. Maize was the crop they most heavily relied on for food. Cash crops, such as cotton and cacao, were also grown. The Maya raised turkeys, guinea pigs, and ducks, and bees were used to produce wax and honey.
Brought in food for the civilization
Domesticated animals, crops, and jewelery
Farmers gave a portion of their crop away for wealth
small towns did not need to take part in long-distance trading, trade to local bartering and exchange
like no other writing system
a number of simple word-pictures or a sophisticated phonetic system
combinations of only 26 signs—that list of letters we call an Alphabet.
Logograms are signs that stand for parts of words or, less commonly, whole words.
Calendar, predict when the sun would set, what time of day it was, even predicted the world would end in 2012
numeral system, Three symbols, horizontal line, a dot and a oval symbol
There was a distinct class systen in ancient Maya. There was a distinct difference between the ruling class and the farmer/laborers. But there was also a middle class, they were the educated scribes, artists, and architects.
The men wore a coton breethcloth that wrapped around the middle, sometimes they wore a sleevless shirt that was white or dyed. The woman wore a skirt that sat on their waists, and hair was grown long. The men and woman all wore sandals, and they all painted their body and faces.
The maya were noted for personal neatness and they frequently bathed with both hot and cold water
Marriage between the same gender, and within sister or wife was forbidden. No one could marry out of their rank. Marriage was preformed by priests, and concubinage was permitted and divrce was easy.
Crops such as maize, beans, squash, and chile peppers grew well in the highlands, but sweet manoic, along with other root vegetables, was easier to produce in the lowlands.
Maize, Preparation of maize, 1. Kernels boiled in lime, 2. Hominy ground into dough, 3. Dough made into 'tamales' or 'tortillas'
10th millennium BCE
Mayan Time periods, Classic period, Pre-Classic, Post-Classic
The large temples were built by the kings. Each time a knew king ruled it added a level to the temples. By the end of the Post-Classic period, these buldings were many stories high. Many of the buldings were also ceremonial centers
The Mayas are regarded as inventors of many aspects of Meso-American cultures, including the first calender and heiroglyphic writing in the Western Hemisphere.
There is no universally accepted theory to explain the collapse.
Current theories fall into two catagories. Non-ecological and ecological