THE VICTORIAN AGE (1837-1901) The historical Background

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THE VICTORIAN AGE (1837-1901) The historical Background by Mind Map: THE VICTORIAN AGE (1837-1901)         The historical Background

1. Working class wanted some more rights, especially the right to vote. The First Reform Bill had excluded them by the rights to vote and for this reason they created a movement to DEMAND the VOTE FOR ALL MEN, this movement became known as CHARTISM. The Third Reform Bill finally gave the right to vote to ALL MALE WORKERS, that was a big step for democracy.

1.1. More equality was also given by reforms such as the MARRIED WOMEN'S PROPERTY ACT, the MATRIMONIAL CAUSES ACT and the RIGHT to VOTE in BOROUGH ELECTIONS.

2. The colonies were supervised from 1801 by the India Office and the Colonial Office. They were generally self-governing and in each territory there was a governor who represented the British Crown.

3. During the Victorian age, Britain was to become the wealthiest and most powerful nation in the world and it was also one of the few countries to remain relatively untroubled by the revolutions which affected many European countries in the 1800s.

4. Queen Victoria reigned for 64 years (1837-1901) and she's Britain's longest reigning monarch.

4.1. Her reign is one of the most interesting and complex periods of British history due to its internal contrasts and transformations.

5. A PERIOD OF OPTIMISM

6. VICTORIAN SOCIETY AND VICTORIAN COMPROMISE

6.1. The Victorian age was a complex and contradictory era, an age which saw on the one hand prosperity and economic ease, on the other poverty and huge social problems. This age became more and more evident that PROGRESS COULDN'T SOLVE ALL OF SOCIETY'S PROBLEMS.

6.1.1. As a result this became a period of great compromise and the mainly compromise were:

6.1.1.1. Middle-class morality and corruption.

6.1.1.2. Faith and science.

6.1.1.3. An exasperating liberalism and the conditions of the working class.

6.1.1.4. Widespread industrialisation and a desire to return to nature and the countryside.

6.1.2. At the beginning of the 19th century the upper class was built upon the old aristocracy. The middle class was slowly gaining more and more power and it was expanded into SUB - STRATA: LOWER - MIDDLE CLASS, MID - MIDDLE CLASS and UPPER - MIDDLE CLASS. The sub-strata reflected the importance of a person's professional status and earning ability. Those belonging to the working class were exploited and lived in extreme poverty and this stratification of society remained intact until the outbreak of the first world war.

7. SOCIAL CHANGE AND POLITICAL PARTIES

7.1. The Victorian era was dominated by two main political parties:

7.1.1. Whigs: becoming known as the LIBERAL PARTY and leaded by Lord Parlmerston

7.1.2. Tories: as the CONSERVATIVE PARTY leaded by Sir Robert Peel and Disraeli.

7.2. During this period, England became the first country in the world to have more urban than rural inhabitants. The people NEEDED TO WORK and for this reason were forced to MIGRATE from country to the towns. The working conditions were also extreme and the people were forced to live in workhouses ( Badly public housing where there wasn't any kind of sanitation ).

8. WORKERS' RIGHTS AND CHARTISM

9. THE MAKING OF EMPIRE AND THE RAILWAYS

9.1. The 19th century saw British colonial expansion in Africa. After the ABOLITION OF SLAVERY, the missionaries and commercial activities developed.

9.1.1. These activities spread to EGYPT and SUDAN but SOUTH AFRICA was more difficult to control because of hostility from the AfriKaaners.