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NUTRIENTS by Mind Map: NUTRIENTS

1. Fats

1.1. Source of energy

1.2. A moderate amount of fat is needed for a healthy lifestyle

1.3. There are good fats and bad fats

1.3.1. Good fats are categorized as Monounsaturated fats and Polyunsaturated fats.

1.3.1.1. Monounsaturated - Improve your cholesterol levels and decrease your risk of cardiovascular disease

1.3.1.1.1. Avocados are unique as it contains fat as more fruits contain carbs. It is also loaded with potassium and fibre, and it benefits your cardiovascular health.

1.3.1.1.2. Nuts are high in healthy fats and fibres. Especially Vitamin E, because that’s a mineral that most people don’t get.

1.3.1.2. Polyunsaturated fats are like monounsaturated fats and reduce the risk of heart disease.

1.3.1.2.1. Salmon, Trout, Mackerel, Sardines, and Herring all fall in the same category.

1.3.2. There are many bad fats which are saturated fats and trans fats.

1.3.2.1. Saturated fats are usually animal-fat based and increase your risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes

1.3.2.1.1. Beek, pork, lamb

1.3.2.1.2. High-fat dairy foods - milk, butter, cheese e.t.c.

1.3.2.2. Trans fats are the worst fats, as they can risk your heart disease risk which is higher than the saturated intake

1.3.2.2.1. Fried goods - french fries

1.3.2.2.2. Vegetable shortening

1.3.2.2.3. Baked goods - cookies, cakes e.t.c.

1.3.2.3. Bad fats usually help you feel full longer because of all the preservatives that are added to the foods.

1.3.2.3.1. Moderate amounts are needed for important body functions

1.3.2.3.2. Essential fatty acids promote…

2. Carbohydrates

2.1. Body’s main source of energy

2.2. An important nutrient in Carbohydrates are called dietary fibres

2.2.1. Cannot be digested by our body’s enzymes

2.2.2. Found in cereals, lentils, fruits e.t.c.

2.3. Dietary Fibre is grouped into 2 categories as soluble and insoluble

2.3.1. Soluble Fibre is fibre that is able to dissolve, mainly in water

2.3.1.1. These are rich foods that include oatmeal, beans, nuts e.t.c.

2.3.1.2. A few benefits Soluble Fibre include Heart Protection, Diabetes Protection, Weight Loss, and Healthy Bowel Movements.

2.3.1.2.1. It helps with Heart Protection as it helps reduce over cholesterol levels and the risk of heart disease because it removes the cholesterol particles from your body.

2.3.1.2.2. For diabetes, it keeps your condition under control. The Soluble Fibres DON’T contribute to your blood sugar and doesn’t put you in risk for type 2 diabetes.

2.3.1.2.3. Soluble Fibres can keep you healthy and keeps you full without adding more calories to your meal.

2.3.1.2.4. Soluble fibres guard you against diarrhea and constipation as most fibre supplements contain soluble fibres.

2.3.2. Insoluble fibres don’t absorb into the water

2.3.2.1. This would include seeds, brown rice, skins of fruit e.t.c.

2.3.2.2. Some benefits of Insoluble Fibres include Weight Loss and Digestive health.

2.3.2.2.1. Similar to soluble fibre, insoluble fibre can prevent you from adding more calories to your diet

2.3.2.2.2. Insoluble fibres can improve your bowel-related health problems like constipation and adding more of it can get things moving

3. Proteins

3.1. There are 5 main functions of proteins

3.1.1. Building Tissues and Muscles

3.1.1.1. Exercises cause tears in the muscle and your body repairs these tears.

3.1.1.1.1. This causes the muscles to enlarge

3.1.1.2. Protein is necessary for the immune response which helps to heal the tiny muscle tears.

3.1.1.3. Consuming extra protein will not help your body to build extra muscle.

3.1.1.3.1. Hair, skin, eyes, muscles, and organs are all made from protein.

3.1.2. Hormone Production

3.1.2.1. Hormones are chemicals produced by glands in the body that help coordinate and communicate with other areas.

3.1.2.2. Hormonal proteins, like insulin, play vital roles like controlling blood sugar concentration.

3.1.2.3. Hormones can also activate muscle growth by increasing protein synthesis.

3.1.3. Enzymes

3.1.3.1. Enzymes are proteins that bind to molecules to speed up chemical reactions...

3.1.3.1.1. Muscle contraction

3.1.3.1.2. Relaxation

3.1.3.1.3. Nerve impulse transmissions

3.1.4. Immune Function

3.1.4.1. Antibodies are produced by the body once it's exposed to bacteria, viruses, fungi e.t.c.

3.1.5. Energy

3.1.5.1. Protein is broken down into amino acids during digestion.

3.1.5.2. Including protein with meals can keep you feeling more fuller longer.

3.1.5.3. Although protein can be used as an energy source, the body's main energy source is carbohydrates

3.1.5.4. Eating a diet with proteins like beans and fish, eating carbs like whole grains and vegetables, and eating healthy fats such as olive oil and avocados is the best way to supply your body with energy.

4. Vitamins

4.1. Help carbohydrates, proteins, and fats do their job (macro-nutrients)

4.2. Keep body tissues healthy

4.3. There are many different types of Vitamins. This is just a little bit if info about a few of them.

4.3.1. Vitamin B12

4.3.1.1. Vitamin B12 promotes healthy nerve function and also helps you lower your risk of heart disease.

4.3.1.2. Some foods that are rich in B12 are poultry, fish, cheese, yogurt e.t.c.

4.3.1.3. Not having enough B12 in your system can also lead to dementia and depression.

4.3.2. Vitamin C

4.3.2.1. Preventing infections

4.3.2.2. Promoting a healthy immune system

4.3.2.3. Citrus is the main source of vitamin C, although it is also found in vegetables.

4.3.2.4. Good foods - Broccoli, tomatoes, spinach e.t.c.

4.3.3. Vitamin D

4.3.3.1. Absorption of calcium in the body

4.3.3.1.1. Important for bone health and development as you grow

4.3.3.2. Benefits your immune system

4.3.3.3. Dairy is an excellent source of Vitamin D

4.3.3.3.1. Milk and Cheese

4.3.4. Vitamin E

4.3.4.1. It is also important to the immune system and preventing infections

4.3.4.2. Healthy Fats

4.3.4.2.1. Avocados

4.3.4.2.2. Vegetable Oil

4.3.4.2.3. Nuts

4.3.5. Vitamin K

4.3.5.1. Lower risk of heart disease

4.3.5.2. Leafy greens

4.3.5.2.1. Spinach

4.3.5.2.2. Kale

4.3.6. Biotin

4.3.6.1. Bones strong

4.3.6.2. Hair healthy

4.3.6.3. Found in...

4.3.6.3.1. Egg yolks

4.3.6.3.2. Whole grains

5. Minerals

5.1. Helps your body grow

5.2. There are 2 types of minerals; Trace/Micro and Macrominerals

5.2.1. Trace/Micro Minerals

5.2.1.1. Are usually minerals that are needed in small amounts

5.2.1.1.1. Even if they’re given in small amounts, each one has its own unique benefit

5.2.1.2. Iron

5.2.1.2.1. Supports brain development

5.2.1.2.2. Immune function

5.2.1.3. Zinc

5.2.1.3.1. Important for normal immune function

5.2.1.3.2. Fights off illnesses

5.2.1.3.3. Examples of foods

5.2.1.4. Copper

5.2.1.4.1. Dairy products - milk, cheese

5.2.1.4.2. Whole grains

5.2.1.4.3. Vegetables

5.2.2. Macro Minerals

5.2.2.1. Macro meaning “big”, it is supposed to be given in larger amounts

5.2.2.1.1. Macrominerals are supposed to be given as 100 g per day

5.2.2.2. A few examples of Macro Minerals and a small description about them.

5.2.2.2.1. Calcium

5.2.2.2.2. Phosphorous

5.2.2.2.3. Magnesium

6. Water

6.1. Water is essential in life

6.1.1. Protects your tissues, Spinal Cord and Joints

6.1.1.1. Keeps your tissues and body moist

6.1.1.2. Helps your body retain the moisture in sensitive areas

6.1.1.2.1. Nose

6.1.1.2.2. Mouth

6.1.1.2.3. Eyes

6.1.1.3. Protects your spinal chords and joints

6.1.2. Helps your body remove waste

6.1.2.1. Keeps you from getting constipated

6.1.2.2. Helps you to excrete waste

6.1.3. Water aids in Digestion

6.1.3.1. In the process of digestion, saliva is the main component, but the basis of that is water

6.1.3.1.1. Helps you break down food and dissolve minerals and other nutrients

6.1.3.2. Helps you digest soluble/dietary fibre (a type of carbohydrate)