Harmful Algal Blooms

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Harmful Algal Blooms by Mind Map: Harmful Algal Blooms

1. Characteristics

1.1. very dense

1.2. toxic algae

1.3. invasive/ aliens species

2. Causes

2.1. excess potassium, nitrogen and other byproducts of fertilizer run off

2.2. agriculture

2.3. climate change - more storms

2.4. more phosphorus initiates the growth of cyanobacteria which produces microcystin

2.5. tourism

2.6. pollution

3. Affects

3.1. drinking water problems - contamination

3.2. increased government spending

3.3. powerful toxin - microcystin

4. Solutions

4.1. the only way to stop is from moving is to stop it from forming in the first place

4.2. reduce the amount of phosphorus coming into the lake

4.2.1. reduce phosphorus by 40%

5. References

5.1. 1. Anderson, D.M., 2002

5.1.1. "Harmful Algal Blooms and Eutrophication": 1. nutrient sources of the blooms are used as evidence to suggest changes in frequency, extent and magnitude of the algal blooms 2. Some affects = fish kills, loss of submerged vegetation, widespread marine mammal mortalities

5.2. 2. Schindler, D.W., 2008

5.2.1. "Eutrophication of Lakes Cannot be Controlled by Reducing Nitrogen Input": 1. excess nitrogen in the lake caused the lake to be eutrophic, thus leading to dense plant growth 2. to reduce eutrophication in lake 227 in precambrian lake, phosphorus levels must be reduced

5.3. 3. Michalak, A.M, 2013

5.3.1. "Record-Setting Algal Bloom in Lake Erie Caused by Agricultural and Meteorological Trends Consistent with Expected Future Conditions": 1. Extended period of weak lake circulation then led to abnormally long residence times that incubated the bloom 2. Warm and quiescent conditions made algae remain near the top of the water and prevented flushing of nutrients from the system.

5.4. 4.Robarts, R.D., 1987

5.4.1. "Temperature effects on photosynthetic capacity, respiration, and growth rates of bloom-forming cyanobacteria": 1. Indirect temperature effects are primary compared to direct when determining dominance. 2. optimum temperature is 25 degrees celsius or higher.

6. Team 5

6.1. Jade Slaughter

6.1.1. "I have a cottage on one of the cleanest lakes because of all of the algae is the swamps"

6.2. Mackenzie Smith

6.2.1. "when the temperature fluctuates in my pool you can see the algae start to form"

6.3. Xiaoyun Bonato

6.3.1. "whenever I go to the beach that is bordered with Detroit, there is always algae taking up the whole surface of the water"

6.4. Danielle Nicolardi

6.4.1. "my aunt has a cottage on Lake Erie and sometimes the water is gross and you slip on algae"

7. Duration

7.1. Long duration

7.2. spreads to different areas over time