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1. Overseas colonies increased and India was the most important

2. Queen Victoria's reign 1837-1901 (64 years)

3. About 1880 the so-called Victorianism (mixture of optimism, chauvinism, doubt and guilt) ended and a new kind of literature emerged

4. Connection between ART and MORALITY

5. NOVELISTS: Dickens (Oliver Twist, David Copperfield), Thackeray, Bronte sisters, Eliot, Hardy

6. NOVEL: the most important genre


8. Age of contradictions but the Victorians became great moralizers: religion, family, home, good manners were important. Patriarchal families. Puritan society. Despite the problems, people accepted things as they were because there was a certain prosperity (Victorian Compromise= morality+hipocrisy)

9. Knowledge and religion were very important and there was also a progress in science, chemistry, engineering

10. In 1854 London underground was built

11. Some laws, First Reform Act and Factory Act, tried to riform social and economic conditions

12. Industrian revolution was in full flood but children and workers were exploited

13. 18 years old, very young. She was helped to govern

14. She restored the popularity of the monarchy

15. Period of relative peace for England