Cell differences

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Cell differences by Mind Map: Cell differences

1. 1. Microbial Diversity

1.1. Temperature

1.1.1. -20 degree (in a brine to prevent freezing)

1.1.2. 110 degree (water is under enough P to prevent boiling)

1.1.3. Psychrophiles - below 20

1.1.4. Mesophiles - between 20 - 50

1.1.5. Thermophiles - above 50

1.2. pH

1.2.1. Mostly in neutral

1.2.2. 1-2 // 9

1.2.3. Some able to grow at low pH, high T

1.3. Aw

1.3.1. Mostly in high aw

1.3.2. Barely moist sold surface

1.3.3. In solution with high salt concentration

1.4. Nutrient

1.4.1. Cyanobacteria (blue green algae) - less moisture & few dissolved bacteria

1.4.2. Photosynthesic

1.4.3. Can convert CO2 > organic compound

1.4.4. Can convert NH2 > NH3

1.5. Wide variety of habitats

1.5.1. Provide important tools for processes to make useful chemicals and medicinal

1.5.2. Key to maintenance of natural cycles

1.5.3. Used in the recovery of metals from low-grade ores or in the desulfurization of coal or fuels

1.5.4. Tremendous ability to exist and develop in almost any environment

1.6. Cell morphology

1.6.1. Coccus

1.6.2. Bacillus

1.6.3. Spirilium

1.6.4. Pleomorphic cell

2. 2. Taxonomy

2.1. Classification

2.2. Critical role in patent litigation

3. 3. Viruses

3.1. Not a free living organism

3.2. Very small

3.3. Nuclear material coated with capsid

3.4. Contain DNA or RNA

3.5. Lytic or lysogenic cycle

3.6. Common contaminant of mirobial fermentation ( lactic acid & acetone-butanol F )

3.7. Bacteriophage

3.7.1. Virus that infects bacteria cell

3.7.2. Used as a vector in gene cloning

4. 4. Procaryotes

4.1. Characteristics

4.1.1. Grow rapidly

4.1.2. Utilize nutrients from C sources Carbs, hydocarbon, proteins, CO2

4.2. Groups

4.2.1. 1. Eubacteria ex : Mycoplasma, Actinomycetes

4.2.2. 2. Archaebacteria

4.3. Structure

4.3.1. Ribosome Protein synthesis

4.3.2. Storage granules Source of metabolites Contain polysaccharides, lipids & sulphur granules

4.3.3. Spores Endospore produced as a resistance to adverse condition ex : high temp, radiation, toxic 1 spore per cell Germinate under favourable growth condition

4.3.4. Volutin Inorganic metaphosphate

4.3.5. Chromatophores Photosynthetic bacteria Utilize for light absorption

4.3.6. Capsules A polysaccharide or polypeptide Extracurricular polymers important for biofilm formation & response to environmental changes

4.4. Groups

4.4.1. 1. Eubacteria True bacteria Gram stain Ex Mycoplasma Actinomycetes

4.4.2. 2. Archaebacteria Identical to eubacteria but differs greatly at molecular level Diff : no peptidoylcans, nucleotide sequence in rDNA, lipid composition Live in extreme env & posses unusual metabolism Methanogens Thermophiles Halophiles

5. 5. Eucaryotes

5.1. Characteristic

5.1.1. Cell wall and membrane are similar with procaryotes Variation in cell wall -peptidoglycan layer -polysach & cellulose (algae) -cellulose embedded in pectin aggregates (plant) -some do not have cell wall (animal)

5.1.2. Plasma membrane is made of proteins and phospholipids

5.1.3. Major membrane proteins are hydrophobic embedded in phospholipidmatrix

5.1.4. Presence of sterols –strengthen structure and make membrane less flexible

5.2. Structure

5.2.1. Nucleus

5.2.2. Mitochondria

5.2.3. Endoplasmic reticulum

5.2.4. Lysozomes

5.2.5. Peroxisomes

5.2.6. Golgi bodies

5.2.7. Vacoules

5.2.8. Chloroplast

5.3. Groups

5.3.1. Fungi Yeast Single, small cell Reproduction Classification ex : Saccharomyces cerevisiae Molds Filamentous fungi Mycellium Reproduce Easily grow on moist, solid nutrient surfaces When grown in submerged culture, mold forms cell aggregates and pellets Based on reproduction, fungi are grouped.... Phycomycetes Ascomycetes Basidiomycetes Deutromycetes

5.3.2. Algae Contain silica or calcium carbonate in cell wall, used as filter aids in industry Algae (Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Spirulina and Dunaliela) are used for waste-water treatment with simultaneous single-cell protein production. Gelling agents (agar and alginicacid) are obtained from marine algae and seaweeds

5.3.3. Protozoa Unicellular, motile, lack of cell wall Obtain food by ingesting other small organism Asexual / sexual Classification Amoeba Flagellates Cilia Sporozoans Cause disease : malaria, dysentery Beneficial role to remove bacteria from waste water

5.3.4. Animal cell

5.3.5. Plant cell

6. How cells grow?

6.1. Batch growth

6.1.1. Cell number density Hemocytometer Plate count Particles counter

6.1.2. Cell mass concentration Cellular dry weight Optical density Indirect method

6.2. Growth patterns & kinetics

6.2.1. *graph LA LO STATION D

6.2.2. *formula

6.2.3. Env condition that affects... Temp As T increase toward Topt, dX/dt doubles for every 10oC increase dX/dt= (µ -k’d)x(above optimal T) µ = Ae^(-Ea/RT); k’d= A’e^(-Ed/RT) (Ea< Ed) Thermal death is more sensitive to T pH Acceptable pH varies about pHopt by ±1-2 pH units (Bacteria = 3-8, Yeast = 3-6, Molds = 3-7, Plant cells = 5-6, Animal cells = 6.5-7.5) pH changes-acid –base addition to control Dissolved [O2] Aerobic fermentation Limiting substrate (sparingly soluble in water) At high [cell], rate O2 consumption > rate O2 supply (O2 limitation) COC Supplied to fermentation broth by AIR SPARGING O2 transfer from gas bubbles to cell is limited by liquid film surrounding OTR = NO2 = kL a (C*-CL) OUR = qO2X = µX / (YX/O2) When O2transfer is rate-limiting step : OUR = OTR Substrate-limiting substrate. –Monod Equation