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Migration: by Mind Map: Migration:

1. Field Note:Risking Lives for Remittances

1.1. Remittances: Money sent home from a family member(usually a man), to his family back home.

1.1.1. Reverse Remittances: Like normal remittances but in reverse, undocumented people in the United Sates for example will ask for financial support from family members back home.

1.2. Why do people do this?

1.2.1. One may choose to leave their home country because of the need to work, and to send money made back home to their families.

1.2.2. Today, legal and illegal immigration is way more difficult than it used to be. For example, the "wall" that is sitting on the Mexico-US border.

1.3. Where does this happen

1.3.1. One example of where this happens is in Haiti or Mexico, Haitians have been known to make the treacherous journey up to Florida in search of a better life.

1.4. Numbers to Consider:

1.4.1. Out of 31.2 million immigrants in the US today, 20.4 million of them are here legally.

1.4.2. Thousands of people in the US and Canada are there on temporary visas to fill seasonal jobs.

2. KEY QUESTION 3: Where do people migrate?


2.1.1. In the past European explorers played a major role in finally mapping the world(1800) Most Europeans traveled for spices, fame, and general exploration. Then Europeans colonized the Americas, Coasts of Africa, parts of Asia all around the time of 1500-1800.

2.1.2. In the past 5 centuries the migration flows include 1) Europe to North America 2) Southern Europe to South and Central America 3 )Britain & Ireland to Africa & Australia 4) Africa to the Americas (Slavery) One of the greatest migration flows was Europe to the Americas


2.2.1. When migrating regionally this means that you can leave the country for nearby ones, making it all in the same region. People would move to a next door country to avoid conflict, and to join cultural groups

2.2.2. Economic Opportunities : Cities in the developing world are typically where most foreign investment goes, where the vast majority of paying jobs are located, and where infrastructure is concentrated. Geographers call these cities "Islands of Development" , making them a notable place for would be migrants.

2.2.3. Reconnection of Cultural Groups : When a culture or large group of people gets separated over many years, and when they reunite in a place this causes the demographic model of that place to change. An example of this would be that in 1948 750,000 jews entered Palestine.

2.2.4. Conflict and War: When countries or just one country is having problems this leads to people leaving or getting kicked out of a country. This happened for example with the Berlin Wall of Germany


2.3.1. These migration flows can also be seen as internal migration flows. A perfect example is that after the civil war African Americans in the south migrated up to the north, staying in the US border. An occurence similar to this occured in Russia.During a communist period Russia intalled a policy of Russification. Which sought to assimilate everyone on Soviet territory into the Russian culture


2.4.1. After world war two Europe was in need of men to work, lots of people from poorer European countries moved here for labor, and tons of immigrant workers came also from North Africa, Turkey, the Caribbean. These migrants are known as guess workers. Usually guest workers fill the void of empty jobs then they head home. In this case many stayed because it had been so long since they originally came. Guest workers usually work Agricultural or Service industries(Hotels, restaurants etc.) All this workers have work visas, with different time frames based on the situation.


2.5.1. As sad as it may be refugees usually have to travel to a nearby country and endure bad conditions. Most Migrants though, stay very close to their home country( 83% do this) Infact, the worlds refugee population has steadily grown since the 1951 refugee convention.

2.5.2. The UN definition of a refugee is "a person who has a wellfounded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion" It's believed that internally displaced persons are the problem with the UN's definition.

2.5.3. Some refugee's qualify for asylum. Asylum refugees are refugees that cannot be sent home if they are going to face persecution if they return to their home country. So they're allowed to stay. Once if ever the conditions in a large groups country become better, repatriation is the process of returning a refugee back to his or her home country.


2.6.1. NORTH AFRICA & SOUTHWEST ASIA: Extending from Morocco in the west and Afghanistan in the east, this region has trememdous refugee conflicts, lasting over 30 years. The refugee movement of Iraqs Kurds involve 2.5 million people.

2.6.2. AFRICA: Millions of people in Africa are internally displaced.For some countries each day is a humanitary crisis, with extreme poverty and possible cruel dictatorship.Over the 20th century several of the worlds largest refugee crisis's occured in Sub-Saharan Africa. Millions of people were lost following the civil war between North and South Sudan. The conflict started in 1999 when Sudan started exporting oil from the south

2.6.3. SOUTH ASIA: This region is the third ranking geographic realm, mainly cause of how Pakistan accommodates with Afghanistans refugees.There are currently 3 million refugees living outside Afghanistan, mostly in Pakistan and Iraq. The other major refugee crisis blossoms from the Sri Lanka Civil War, which was started by Tamils wanting to be an independent state.

2.6.4. SOUTHEAST ASIA: This region shows how the refugee crisis can change quickly. This region went from one of the most desperate refugee crisis to housing the largest camps for IDP's (Myanmar)

2.6.5. EUROPE: Around 1995 the largest refugee crisis here occured following the collapse of Yugoslavia. Resulting in around 6,056,600 refugees. There are still 100,00 IDP's in this area today.

2.6.6. OTHER REGIONS: The number of IDP's not in the said regions is small, Columbia is the only other country with a serious IDP problem,with 3.4-4.9 million people caused by the country's chronic instability.

3. KEY QUESTION 1: What is Migration?


3.1.1. Definition: When movement results in permanent relocation across significant distances, whether it involves an individual, household, or group.

3.1.2. One type of migration is international migration, which is pretty straight forward. International migration includes moving out of the country of origin When someone moves out of their country they're considered an emigrant to that country. When someone moves into a foreign country, they are considered immigrants to that country.

3.1.3. Another type of migration is Internal migration, which simply means migrating within a country's borders. An example of Internal migration is when the African Americans migrated from the south to industrializing cities in the north, whilst migrating this group of people stayed in the United States borders.


3.2.1. Definition: This type of movement involves journeys that begin at our home, and in the end bring us back to it. Like a cycle.

3.2.2. Majority of working Americans endure a cyclic movement during their workday, such as commuting to work everyday, and running other errands. These moves are called activity spaces. Another form of cyclic movement is seasonal movement. For example some people in southern Canada and northern US prefer to move to sunbelt states like Florida during the colder months, then returning home in the spring. Another type of cyclic movement is known as nomadism. Nomadism is a now uncommon type of survival, groups of "wanderers" literally wander to different areas throughout the year, not claiming any one territory for their own.


3.3.1. Definition: Similar to cyclic movement, with Periodic movement you always come home eventually. This type of movement involves being away from from for longer periods of time.

3.3.2. An example of periodic movement can be migrant labor. When one moves (mainly seasonly) to work in a different place for a period of time and coming home after their work is done. Other examples of this movement could be attending a four year college, or being in the military and moving around frequently.

4. KEY QUESTION 4: How do Governments affect Migration?


4.1.1. Usually obstacles placed in the way of immigrants are legal not physical (walls and such), When the Oriental Exclusion Acts were approved immigration laws were born.They were originally made to prevent the Chinese people from migrating to California.

4.1.2. Australia also has some immigration laws, Australia doesn't want Japenese, Chinese, and South Asian immigrants in their newly united country. Australia also deported all of the sugar plantation workers(who were from the South-Pacific region).


4.2.1. Changes in a country's immigration laws are going to form some migration waves, during the 1800s the US was open for immigration,but after world war one, the US went towards isolationism, meaning they didn't want much to do with the world.

4.2.2. Then the US Congress set immigration quotas. Meaning European countries could permit the emigration to the US of 3% of the number of it's nationals living in the US during 1910. Thus allowing northern and western Europeans rather than southern and eastern. Then in 1924 the quota was lowered to 2% and the base year was 1890. This reduced the total to 150,000 immigrants and reaallyy discouraging southern and eastern europeans.

4.2.3. The US wasn't the only country with restricted immigration. Many countries have selective immigration, where they look into one's criminal background and such. Or a country may have very specific requirements.

4.3. POST 9/11

4.3.1. Since 9/11 the US safety concerns are huge and very precautious. If a person is applying for Asylum or just migration into the US, that person better not be from the 33 countries where Al Queda and other terrorist groups operate, cause they'll be immediately detained.

4.3.2. The US also has a policy that says they can detain ant immigrant whether or not they have ties to terrorist organizations.

4.3.3. The US is also concerned with letting hidden terrorists into the country legally. A person could be using altered papers to get in the United States.

5. KEY QUESTION 2: Why do people migrate?


5.1.1. Forced migration is the situation where one group of people forces another group to migrate. Forced migration still occurs today! Counter-migration is when governments detain migrants who enter or attempt to enter their countries illegally, which is when they are then returned to their home countries.

5.1.2. Forced migration is usually decided by some sort of authority/power one group has over the other. There have been many forced migration horrors in our worlds past, an example of one would be the Atlantic Slave Trade, which strongly affected the worlds demographic map.


5.2.1. For starters, Voluntary Migration is when an individual or group is pulled or pushed my multiple factors to leave or journey to another place.

5.2.2. British demographer Ernst Ravenstein studied internal migration in England and came up with 5 laws on why people choose to migrate. 1.Every migration flow generates a return or counter-migration 2.The majority of migrants move a short distance 3.Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations 4.Urban residents are less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas 5.Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults

5.2.3. Distance Decay: DD is the reason why people know more about places near them, therefore they will move to places nearby.

5.2.4. Step Migration: Step migration is a way of migrating, it's when a person or group travels in steps. From a rural village to a town, and from a town to a city and from a city to a larger city or capital An example of Step Migration in Brazil would finish in Sao Paulo or Rio de Janeiro


5.3.1. Power relationships are relationships between two people when one has an "advantage" over the other. An example is if a women in the Middle East hire a Southeast Asian as a domestic servant, the Middle eastern is going to have an "advantage" over her employee. Power relationships can be determined through gender, ethnicity, race, and income.


5.4.1. When it comes to migration and political circumstances that can almost always mean two things. Escaping a country, or getting kicked out of a country. An example of migration due to political circumstances is how more than 125,000 Cubans were expelled from Uganda.

5.4.2. Political Circumstances can mean that a dictator is just rotten and awful, or one's rights weren't fair, resulting in many emigrants.


5.5.1. When there is a war the only logical thing to to is leave, or attempt to leave, your home country. Although as tragic as it may be some people are not able to come back into their country, becoming permanent emigrants


5.6.1. After an enviromental disaster, the population of a region is almost always going to drop. It'll drop because everyone will not want to stay in an extendedly damaged area. An example of where a natural disaster affected a regions demographic model would be A) New Orleans after hurricane Katrina and B) Ireland after the potato famine.

5.6.2. An example of enviromental crises that would be considered a push factor to most are tsunamis, hurricanes, tornados, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions


5.7.1. When people believe that their culture will not survive a major political transition, and those who are able to migrate, will. And those people will move to places that they deem as safer. A real-world example of this is when the British partitioned South Asia into a mainly Hindu India and an almost exclusively Muslim Pakistan, millions of Muslim residents of India moved to the new Islamic State. A total of 8 million people migrated.


5.8.1. In todays new world, news about anywhere spreads fast, and it spreads through technology.

5.8.2. Kinship Links: When a family member migrates to a new place, that family member today can communicate home how life is there, encouraging them to join.

5.8.3. Chain Migration: Is the migration where one family member leaves, then more follow, then even more follow.

5.8.4. Immigration waves: These are when waves of families migrate to a new place, then encouraging family friends and others to join.