Teaching Learning and Development

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Teaching Learning and Development by Mind Map: Teaching Learning and Development

1. Making Instructional Decisions

1.1. What can it look like?

1.1.1. • Making sure there are places in the room to work quietly and without distraction, as well as places that invite student collaboration; • Providing materials that reflect a variety of cultures and home settings; • Setting out clear guidelines for independent work that matches individual needs; • Developing routines that allow students to get help when teachers are busy with other students and cannot help them immediately; and • Helping students understand that some learners need to move around to learn, while others do better sitting quietly (Tomlinson, 1995, 1999; Winebrenner, 1992, 1996).

1.2. Meaningful Learning

1.2.1. 1. Selecting relevant information 2. Organizing the selected information 3. Integrating the organized information with prior knowledge.

1.3. How People Learn Framework (HPL)

1.3.1. Within our learning community, student's learning is equally... Knowledge Centred Assessment Centred Learner Centred

2. Making Instructional Decisions

2.1. Diagnostic Assessment

2.2. Blooms Taxonomy

2.2.1. 1. Knowledge 2. Comprehension 3. Application 4. Analysis 5. Synthesis 6. Evaluation Cognitive Verbs 1. Knowledge 2. Comprehension 3. Application 4. Analysis 5. Synthesis 6. Evaluation

2.3. Constructivist

2.3.1. • Complex, challenging learning environments • Real world situations • Social negotiation –collaborative work • Multiple representations of content • Making students aware of the knowledge construction process – becoming self-regulated learners • Student-centered instruction; student ownership of learning

2.4. Motivating Students to Learn

2.4.1. • Challenging and meaningful tasks • Being able to effectively use learning strategies • Having teacher support • Being required to demonstrate knowledge • Feeling that the teacher cares for them

3. Considering Developmental Differences

3.1. Growth Mindset

3.1.1. Embrace Challenges because you know you'll come out stronger on the other side

3.1.2. Leads to a desire to learn.

3.1.3. Find lessons and inspiration in the success of others.

3.1.4. Learn from criticism because they are a source of information.

3.1.5. See effort as the path to mastery and is seen as necessary to grow and master useful skills.

3.1.6. Failures are an opportunity to learn.

3.1.7. Self-image is not tied to your success and how you will look to others.

3.1.8. Persist in the face of setbacks.

3.2. How an educator can teach the student HOW to learn.

3.3. Development?

3.3.1. • Physical, cognitive, and social changes • Learning becomes more organized • Behaviours become more adaptive

4. Cognitive, Behavioural, Social and Constructivist

4.1. What is Development?

4.1.1. Principles of Development • Orderly progression/gradual process • Periods of rapid and slow growth • Quantitative and qualitative changes • Individuals develop at different rates • Genetics set developmental potential • Environment determines potential realized

4.1.2. • Physical, cognitive, and social changes • Learning becomes more organized • Behaviours become more adaptive

4.2. Teacher Planning (3 E's)

4.2.1. Excellent instruction

4.2.2. Enhanced student learning

4.2.3. Exemplary environments

4.3. Theories of Learning and Teaching

4.3.1. Behavioural

4.3.2. Cognitive

4.3.3. Social Cognitive and Constructivist

5. Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

5.1. 5 Global Principals of Effective Classroom Management

5.1.1. •Develop caring, supportive relationships with and among students. •Organize and implement instruction in ways that optimize students’ access to learning. • Use group management methods that encourage students’ engagement in academic tasks. • Promote the development of students’ social skills and self-regulation. • Use appropriate interventions to assist students with behaviour problems

5.2. Expectations

5.2.1. an emphasis on the explicit clarification of what students are expected to do—this dimin- ishes student passivity and/or compliance-only attitudes;

5.3. Problem Prevention

5.3.1. a collaborative and collective emphasis by teachers and students on before-the-fact problem prevention while only using after-the-fact disciplinary measures as needed—this diminishes punishment-based management and the perception that the only owner and enforcer of the rules is the teacher; and

5.4. Instruction+ Classroom Management

5.4.1. an emphasis on classroom management as an integral part of instruction rather than as a separate and disconnected part of teacher practice—this increases the coherence and continuity of all that takes place in the classroom.

5.5. Teachers as Linchpins

5.5.1. • provide positive feedback to students; • offer sustained feedback to students; • respond supportively to students in general; • respond even more supportively to low-ability students; • respond supportively to students with behaviour problems; • ask questions that students are able to answer correctly; • present learning tasks for which students have a high probability of success; • use time efficiently; • intervene in misbehaviour at a low rate; • maintain a low ratio of punitive to positive interventions; • are punitive at a low rate; • use criticism at a low rate; • keep the need for disciplinary interventions low through positive classroom interventions; • waste little student time on transitions; and • keep off-task time to a minimum

5.6. Tony Wagner - Most Likely to Succeed

5.7. Considerations

5.7.1. Learning Profile • Depicts how a child learns • Academic strengths • learning styles • interests • special abilities • child's vision and goal for the future

5.7.2. Interests • The students area of appeal or curiosity ( think horses)

5.7.3. Readiness • The students skill development level Tasks -Tasks should be complex Control --students make decisions, have choices, and take responsibility for planning, setting goals, judging progress Self-evaluation -Students monitor their own process and outcomes and learn to adjust their efforts in order to attain goals Collaboration -Students and teachers engage in shared problem- solving.

6. Knowing that the Students Know

6.1. Learning Styles

6.1.1. Auditory -Learn best through spoken and heard material and like to be involved in aural questioning -i.e. Listening to lectures, and stories.

6.1.2. Visual - Learn best from information that they see or read. - Illustrations, pictures, diagrams, graphic organizers help to construct meaning.

6.1.3. Tactile -Learn best by doing and moving. Enjoy role-playing and being physically involved in the learning process.

6.2. Agricultural Model

6.2.1. If we plant lettuce and the Lettuce does not grow, we don’t blame the lettuce. We look for reasons why It isn’t doing well!

6.3. "Teaching for understanding"

6.3.1. There should be coherent curriculum design and clear distinctions between big ideas and essential questions.

6.3.2. Teachers should tell students about big ideas and essential questions, performance requirements, and evaluative criteria at the beginning of the unit or course.

6.3.3. Students should be able to describe the goals (big ideas and essential questions) and performance requirements of the unit or course.

6.3.4. What is Understanding by Design? Author Jay McTighe explains.

6.4. What to Teach?

6.4.1. Diagnostic Assessment

6.4.2. Incorporate a variation in lessons using student's learning styles.

6.5. Backward Teaching

6.5.1. 1. What do I want my students to learn? What I want students to learn is called an instructional goal/learning objective. 2. How will I determine whether or not they have learned? The educational device that determines whether or not the learning objective has been learned is called an assessment question. 3. What will I teach? I will teach topics/units/lessons that directly address the intended instructional goal/learning objectives. 4. How will I teach? I will choose the best way to teach the topics/units/lessons so that objectives are fully achieved/realized.

7. Individual Differences- Intellectual Abilities and Challenges

7.1. Do schools kill creativity?

7.2. Including Students with exceptionalities

7.2.1. 5 Categories of Exceptionalities Behaviour Communication: includes autism, deaf or hard of hearing, language impairment, speech impairment, learning disability Intellectual: includes giftedness, mild intellectual disability, developmental disability Physical disability: includes blindness, low vision Multiple combination of above

7.2.2. Educators within a classroom are the most influential factor in promoting successful inclusion within educational settings, not just in classrooms, but in hallways and staffrooms.

7.2.3. Ontario's Bill 82 On December 12, 1980, the Education Amendment Act, commonly known as Bill 82, was signed into law in the province of Ontario. This bill requires boards of education to provide special education services to all students who are in need. Prior to Bill 82, the provision of services for students with exceptionalities was optional. While most boards in the province did already provide some types of services, the passing of Bill 82 provided access to education for all students regardless of disability

7.2.4. Recommended Approaches 1. Examine your own beliefs. 2. Work with the school team, including the student. 3. Use a variety of instructional methods, including differentiated instruction and universal design. 4. Extend inclusion to the whole school.

7.2.5. Including students with exceptionalities in the regular classroom does not have a negative impact on the academic achievement of other students.

7.2.6. Social benefits accrue to both regular and exeptional students in inclusive settings, among them an increase in advocacy and more tolerant attitudes.

7.2.7. DISABILITIES versus HANDICAPS •Disability = inability to do something •Handicap = a disadvantage in certain situations PEOPLE -FIRST LANGUAGE •Refer to “students with learning disabilities” NOT “learning disabled students”

7.3. Intellectual

7.3.1. The ability (or abilities) to acquire and use knowledge for solving problems and adapting to the world How is it measured? Standardized Aptitude and Achievement Tests How is it formed? Both nature and nurture contribute to the formation of an intelligence.

7.3.2. Ability to adapt to one’s environment

7.3.3. Ability to learn from experience

7.4. Inclusion

7.4.1. Those who teach students with exceptional needs develop deeper diagnostic skills and a wider repertoire of teaching strategies.

7.4.2. • Acceptance of differences • Instruction focuses on appropriate teacher interventions • Material being taught is made accessible to all students

7.4.3. Integration= Making the child fit into the system. WHEREAS Inclusion = changing the system to fit the child.

8. Socio-Cultural Considerations

8.1. Inclusion

8.1.1. Children are different. All Children can learn. Different abilities, ethnic groups, size , age, background, gender. We as educators need to change the system to fit the child.

8.1.2. Disability Prayer Let us pray for the vision impaired... who can only see differences in people, not who that person is inside... Let us pray for the speech impaired... who can only speak with harsh and hurtful words, instead of kindness and understanding.... Let us pray for the emotionally disturbed... who can not seem to care for anyone that is any different from themselves, instead of at least trying to love everyone, "different" or not.... Let us pray for the hearing impaired... who can only hear the unspoken words, instead of listening for what someone is trying to tell them... Please God... help these truly DISabled people so that this world can become a better place for ALL of your children....... AMEN!

8.2. Culturally Responsive Teaching

8.2.1. A culturally responsive practice has a broad cultural knowledge and instructional base that grows and changes.

8.2.2. Teachers must know the following: • Their own cultural assumptions • How to inquire about students’ backgrounds • How to develop teaching approaches and curriculum to meet needs of culturally diverse learners • How to establish links across cultures

8.3. The danger of a single story | Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

9. End of the School Year

9.1. Standardized Tests

9.1.1. To asses the effectiveness of instruction .

9.1.2. Criterion-Referenced • Student’s score determined by comparing performance to established criteria

9.1.3. Norm-Referenced • Student’s score determined by comparing performance to that of other students

9.1.4. CRITICISM • Biased tests • Stressful for students and teachers • Results in teaching to the test • Takes up too much time • Does not enhance student learning • Content of tests does not reflect instruction

9.1.5. IDEAS FOR IMPROVEMENT • Be based on the same curriculum framework • Address the same cognitive demands • Incorporate similar tasks • Use common standards for judging quality of work • Use same benchmarks to represent learning over time

9.1.6. IDEALY THEY WOULD... • Enhance teaching and learning • Improve curricular design • Be minimally intrusive

9.2. Standardized Tests in Canada

9.2.1. Federal • Achievement levels of 13 year olds (math, reading, and science)

9.2.2. Provincial/Territorial • Different uses including math and literacy testing at certain grade levels and Grade 12 exit exams

9.3. Motivations


9.3.2. Always understand your students, their strenghts and their weaknesses.

9.3.3. They are more then what their test scores tell them they are. Their test scores are not a reflection of who they are as a students

9.3.4. Ask your self as a teacher... • Does the student’s score make sense? • How does the score compare to the student’s other achievement indicators? • Does the score reveal growth in learning? • Did the student just have a bad day?

9.4. How EQAO Tests are Created, Administered and Scored