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AC1.1 by Mind Map: AC1.1

1. Honour Crime

1.1. Definition

1.1.1. Punishments on people for acts deemed to have brought shame on their families

1.2. Examples

1.2.1. Acid Attacks

1.2.2. Abductions

1.2.3. Mutilations

1.2.4. Beatings

1.2.5. Murder

1.3. Types of victims

1.3.1. Typically a young girl within the family commonly a daughter from an Asian community

1.3.1.1. More influenced by Western Culture

1.3.1.2. Patriarchal society

1.4. Case study

1.4.1. Shafilea Ahmed

1.4.1.1. Wanted her to marry a cousin in his late 20's and become a devoted wife, possibly never to return to the UK

1.4.1.1.1. Refused arranged marriage

1.4.1.2. More western views

1.4.1.3. Parents abused her - violence escalated up to her death

1.4.1.3.1. Killed for her resitance

1.4.1.3.2. Stuffed a plastic bag into her mouth to block her airways, ultimately suffocating her to death

1.4.1.4. Parents sentenced to 25 years in prison

1.5. Types of offender

1.5.1. Often a male member of the family

1.5.1.1. Typically a father, brother or uncle of the victim

1.6. Level of public awareness

1.6.1. Low

1.6.1.1. Due to differences in culture

2. Technological Crimes

2.1. Definition

2.1.1. Where the offence is committed using the internet or other technologies

2.2. Examples

2.2.1. Internet-enabled fraud

2.2.2. Downloading illegal materials

2.2.2.1. E.g.

2.2.2.1.1. Songs

2.2.2.1.2. Images

2.2.3. The use of social media to promote hate crimes

2.2.4. Sextortion

2.3. Types of victims

2.3.1. Celebrities

2.3.2. Teenagers

2.3.3. Banks

2.3.4. Catfishing

2.3.5. Anyone with access to the media, technology and the internet

2.3.6. Texting

2.4. Types of offenders

2.4.1. Anyone who has basic knowledge of and access to the internet or the technical ability to gain access to bank accounts, credit cards and personal information.

2.5. Level of Public Awareness

2.5.1. On the rise, moderate

2.5.2. Lack of evidence

2.5.2.1. Evidence can be easily destroyed

2.5.2.2. Easier to hide your identity

2.5.3. People are embarrassed / scared to say something

2.5.4. Low priority

2.5.5. Lack of developed police teams

2.5.6. Crosses jurisdictions

3. State Crime

3.1. Definition

3.1.1. Activities perpetrated by, or by order of, state agencies that commit crimes in order to further their policies

3.1.2. Breaches the European Convention on human rights

3.2. Examples

3.2.1. Genocide

3.2.2. War Crimes

3.2.3. Imprisonment without trial

3.2.4. Torture

3.3. Types of victims

3.3.1. Citizens of the country

3.3.2. Those of a different religion

3.3.3. Different political view than the government

3.4. Types of offenders

3.4.1. High-ranking officials under the orders of the country's regime

3.5. Level of public awareness

3.5.1. High

3.5.1.1. .

3.5.1.1.1. ...Social media

3.5.1.1.2. ...It is against morals

3.5.1.1.3. ...Investigative journalism

3.5.1.1.4. ...More people are educated about human rights/ incidents

3.5.1.1.5. ...Socialisation is different

3.6. Case study

3.6.1. Rwandan Genocide

3.6.1.1. Between April- June 1994

3.6.1.2. An estimated 800,000 killed

3.6.1.3. Tutsi's killed by Hutu military

3.6.1.3.1. ID cards used to determine who were Hutu and who were Tutsi

3.6.1.4. Sparked by the death of Rwandan President

3.6.1.5. Hutu civilians forced to murder Tutsi neighbours

3.6.1.5.1. If not they were killed

3.6.1.6. July

3.6.1.6.1. Tutsi-led rebel group movement RPF captures the capital Kigali

3.6.1.6.2. Two million Hutu's flee to Zaine

4. Moral Crimes

4.1. Definiton

4.1.1. Crimes against the normal standard within society.

4.2. Examples

4.2.1. Prostitution

4.2.2. Vagrancy

4.2.3. Under-age drinking

4.2.4. Assisted suicide

4.2.5. Illegal gambling

4.2.6. Illegal drug use

4.3. Victimology

4.3.1. often thought to be victimless

4.3.2. technically the offenders themselves are victims

4.4. Offenders

4.4.1. Likely to commit this crime...

4.4.1.1. ...Because there is a low chance of prosecution

4.4.1.2. ...Because it can be a coping mechanism

4.4.1.3. ...To provide for themselves/ family

4.4.1.4. ...If said person is forced into it/ born into it

4.5. Level of public awarness

4.5.1. Low

4.5.1.1. Many of the offences are hidden

4.5.2. Ignored by the public

4.5.2.1. Feeling of sympathy for victims/ offenders

4.5.2.2. Lack of desire to tell the police

4.6. Case studies

4.6.1. Assisted Suicide

4.6.1.1. United states

4.6.1.1.1. Brittany Maynard

4.6.1.2. United Kingdom

4.6.1.2.1. Diane Pretty

5. White-collar crime

5.1. Definition

5.1.1. A crime committed by a person of high social status that is the result of deliberate by legitimate business organizations that is intended to only benefit the business

5.1.2. Generally non-violent

5.2. Examples

5.2.1. Computer Fraud

5.2.2. Internet Fraud

5.2.3. Credit card fraud

5.2.4. Tax evasion

5.2.5. Illegal gambling

5.3. Victimology

5.3.1. People who have the money to invest in financial schemes

5.3.1.1. E.g. Retired workers

5.4. Offenders

5.4.1. Usually people of respectability who are trusted by their victims. Often working in commercial employment (businesses). Offenders can also be involved in organized crime groups like the Mafia, Triads, Yakuza, etc.

5.5. Level of public awareness

5.5.1. Society don't know true extent

5.5.1.1. Don't know how it would affect them personally

5.5.2. Not many offenders are convicted

5.5.2.1. Witness and victims lie in fear that something might happen if they snitch

5.5.2.2. Hard to gather full evidence

5.5.2.2.1. If on a computer it can be destroyed

5.5.2.3. Long-term crime

5.5.2.3.1. Hard to trace back to originator

5.5.2.4. Money, status and power play a part in getting them the best lawyers and lowered/ no prison sentences

5.6. Case study

5.6.1. Bernie Madoff

5.6.1.1. Largest pyramid scheme in U.S history

5.6.1.2. $17.5 billion stolen from more than 4,000 accounts

5.6.1.2.1. Banks and hedge funds

5.6.1.3. Security fraud, advisor fraud, mail fraud, wire fraud, 3 counts of money laundering, false statements, perjury, false filings, theft

5.6.1.4. Serving life in prison (150 years)

6. Green Crime/ Environmental Crime

6.1. Definition

6.1.1. Actions that cause harm to any of the living world

6.2. Examples

6.2.1. Climate Control

6.2.2. Deforestation

6.2.3. Poaching

6.2.4. Pollution

6.3. Case studies

6.3.1. Chernobyl Disaster

6.3.1.1. 1986

6.3.1.2. Nuclear reactor explosion

6.3.1.3. 60 directly died (on the day)

6.3.1.4. Estimated 93,000 subsequently developed cancer

6.3.1.5. Future gen. developed genetic mutations

6.3.2. Seaworld

6.3.2.1. Whale capturing from the wild

6.3.2.1.1. If they died while being captured they were cut open and filled with rocks to allow them to sink

6.3.2.2. Whale kept in small tanks

6.3.2.2.1. don't increase while they grow

6.3.2.2.2. sometimes held back food

6.3.2.2.3. sometimes kept in unfinished pools

6.3.2.3. Whale forced to interact with other aggressive whales

6.3.2.3.1. attacked one another because they were frustrated

6.4. Problems

6.4.1. Global scale

6.4.1.1. Different governments need to work together and agree (United Nations)

7. Hate Crime

7.1. Definition

7.1.1. Any crime that is perceived as being motivated by prejudice or hate based on a person's race religious belief, sexual orientation, disability or sexuality. Can also include verbal abuse, intimidation, assault, bullying as well as damage to property and offender exploiting victim for financial gain or other criminal purposes. It can be aggravated by a hate element

7.2. Victimology

7.2.1. Anyone who falls in the above strands or through association with someone from those strands

7.3. Case study

7.3.1. Matthew Shepard

7.3.1.1. Murdered because he was gay

7.3.1.2. Beaten, tortured and left for dead

7.3.1.3. Died in hospital six days later

7.3.1.4. Perpetrators

7.3.1.4.1. Aaron Mckinney

7.3.1.4.2. Russel Henderson

7.3.1.4.3. Punishment

7.3.1.5. Obama passed the Matthew Shepard Crime Prevention Act

7.3.2. James Byrd

7.3.2.1. Lynched- died because he was black

7.3.2.2. Offenders

7.3.2.2.1. Shawn Berry

7.3.2.2.2. Lawrence Brewer

7.3.2.2.3. John King

7.3.2.2.4. Charges

7.3.2.3. Passed the James Byrd Jr. Hate Crime Prevention Act

7.4. Types of offenders

7.4.1. Anyone holding a different view against someone falling under the five strands

7.5. Level of public awareness

7.5.1. High

7.5.1.1. Increased media focus on crimes such as these

7.5.1.2. legislation changes to attempt to deter individuals from committing these crimes

8. Domestic Abuse

8.1. Definition

8.1.1. Any act targeted to be abuse against a partner or family member thats happens within the home, often in secret

8.2. Examples

8.2.1. Assault

8.2.2. Murder

8.2.3. Torture

8.2.4. Verbal abuse

8.2.5. Financial abuse

8.2.6. Mental/ psychological manipulation

8.2.7. Removing freedom of independance

8.2.8. Emotional manipulation

8.3. Victimology

8.3.1. Anyone male or female

8.4. Types of offenders

8.4.1. Anyone male or female

8.5. Level of public awareness

8.5.1. Low

8.5.1.1. People are afraid / embarrassed

8.5.1.2. Fear of repruccusions

8.5.1.3. Kept in private

8.5.1.4. Other underlying sources

8.5.1.4.1. Mentally

8.5.1.5. Some are still in love with their partner

8.5.1.6. Happens over a long period of time

8.6. Case study- Stacey Dooley doc.

8.6.1. Russia

8.6.2. Supported by the Orthodox Church

8.6.3. " If he beats you he loves you"