Prehistory India

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Prehistory India by Mind Map: Prehistory India

1. origin of human

1.1. archaic homo sapiens evolved into anatomically modern human in africa

1.2. humans inhabit india since middle pleistoscene era

2. The definition of prehistory period Prehistory refers to the period of time before civilization and writing. We don't know a lot about prehistory

3. divisions

3.1. mesolithic

3.2. divided into 3 period based on tool making technologies

3.3. Stone age

3.3.1. paleolithic lower paleolithic hand axe and cleaver industry middle paleolihic flake tools technology high paleolithic flakes and blade tools

3.3.2. neolithic

3.3.3. chalcolithic

3.4. bronze age

3.5. Metal/Iron age

4. prehistoric finding

4.1. bhimbetka-painted rock shelters

4.2. Nevasa-evidence of cotton

4.3. antranjikheda-textile printing

4.4. hastinapur-wild sugarcane

4.5. inamgaon-statue of mother goddess

4.6. mehrgarh-earliest evidence of agriculture

4.7. koldihwa- earliest evidence of rice

4.8. bagor-domestication of animal

4.9. chirand-serpent cult

4.10. burzahom & gufkral-pit dwelling

5. prehistory of india

5.1. first human settlement in india

5.1.1. jwalapulam, andhra, pradesh

5.1.2. year:70.000 YBP

5.2. earliest archaeological site

5.2.1. paleolithic hominid site in soan river valley

5.3. archaeological evidences

5.3.1. remains homo erectus of hothnora in the narmada valley

5.3.2. belongs to Pleistocene period (500.000 and 200.000 years ago)

5.4. major findings

5.4.1. no human fossil have been associated with stone age tools in india

5.4.2. stone tools dated between 2mya and 1.3 mya we're excavated from siwalik hills

6. item In metal age: Iron Age sword, 1500 BCE Ceramic goblet from Navdatoli, Malwa, 1300 BCE. Ancient Indian Ax Blade, 1500–1000 BCE

7. stone age

7.1. earlliest paleolithic tool

7.1.1. In India, no human fossils have been found associated with Stone Age tools.

7.1.2. The archaeological site of Bori in Pune district of Maharashtra is about 1.38 million years old. It gives the scientific record for the early stone tools in India.

7.1.3. The various strata of the Sivalik hills containing stone tools have been dated between 2 to 1.2 million years.

7.2. paleolithic

7.2.1. Lower Palaeolithic Culture The time period of Lower Palaeolithic culture was marked between 600,000 and 60,000 B.C The main tool types of this era were hand axes and cleavers, along with chopper-chopping tools. These were made on cores as well as flakes. The raw materials used for making the stone tools were largely of different kinds of stones, including quartzite, chert, and sometimes even quartz and basalt, etc. Following are the important sites of Lower Palaeolithic cultures

7.2.2. Middle Paleolithic Culture The period between 150,000 B.C. and 40,000 B.C. is marked as the middle Palaeolithic culture

7.2.3. Upper Paleolithic cult The period between 9,000 and 8,000 B.C. is marked as Upper Palaeolithic culture. The tools of Upper Palaeolithic culture were characterized by basic technological innovation in the method of producing parallel sided blades from a carefully prepared core and in the development of the composite tools. The most noteworthy discovery of the Upper Palaeolithic period is the rubble-made platforms and the Mother Goddess who was worshiped as female principle or Sakti in the countryside. The rubble platform with its unique stone was made by a group of final upper Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers. A piece of natural stone in the center of the platform is found on the top of the Kaimur escarpment.

7.3. Neolithic

7.3.1. The Neolithic Era is sometimes referred to as the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution marked by the knowledge and understanding of animal domestication for food and labor and the first instances of farming. This advancement for humans is what allowed the River Valley Civilizations to grow and cultivate the first governments, religions, calendars, and later empires

7.3.2. The Neolithic Era in India didn't happen in tandem across the subcontinent, and agriculture and animal domestication appeared at different times. The First Period of the Neolithic Era in India began around 7000 BC and ended in 5500 BC. The Second Period of the Neolithic Era lasted roughly one thousand years from 5500 BC to 4500 BC. The Third Period of the Neolithic Era was also one thousand years from 4500 BC to 3500 BC.

7.4. mesolithic

7.4.1. During these years in India, early humans were still hunter-gatherers, but the tools they used were much more advanced. Although tools and weapons were made from stone, they were used for more technologically advanced purposes, like constructing large structures.

7.4.2. In India during the Paleolithic Age, early humans lived in cave-like dwellings. By the Mesolithic Period, Indians were creating structures to express their religion and culture. Caves were still used as dwellings, but by the time the period was over, they had progressed into much more sophisticated constructions

7.4.3. Some archaeologists classify parts of the Mesolithic Age along with the last part of the Paleolithic Age in India called the Upper Paleolithic Age, which ended in 8,000 BCE. This overlap is due to the fact that the sites that have been excavated from both periods are very similar. Nonetheless, by the time India moved into the Mesolithic Age, their world was not only warmer, but more advanced - as can be seen in the different sites that mark the period

8. Metal age

8.1. Bronze age

8.1.1. The Bronze Age in the Indian subcontinent begins around 3000 BCE, and in the end gives rise to the Indus Valley Civilization, which had its (mature) period between 2600 BCE and 1900 BCE. It continues into the Rigvedic period, the early part of the Vedic period. It is succeeded by the Iron Age in India, beginning in around 1000 BCE.

8.1.2. Date range Phase Era 3300-2600 Early Harappan (Early Bronze Age) Regionalisation Era c.4000-2500/2300 BCE (Shaffer)[3] c.5000-3200 BCE (Coningham & Young)[4] 3300-2800 Harappan 1 (Ravi Phase) 2800-2600 Harappan 2 (Kot Diji Phase, Nausharo I, Mehrgarh and Vinya VII) 2600-1900 Mature Harappan (Indus Valley Civilization) Integration Era 2600-2450 Harappan 3A (Nausharo II) 2450-2200 Harappan 3B 2200-1900 Harappan 3C 1900-1300 Late Harappan (Cemetery H); Ochre Coloured Pottery Localisation Era 1900-1700 Harappan 4 1700-1300 Harappan 5

8.2. Copper Age

8.2.1. The earliest settlements belonging to this phase are extended from the Chhotanagpur plateau to the copper Gangetic basin. Some sites are found at Brahmagiri near Mysore and Navada Toli on the Narmada.

8.2.2. The transition from use of stone to the use of metals is slow and long drawn. There is no doubt that there was an overlapping period when both stone and metals were used. This is proved by the close resemblance of metallic tools and implements with those made of stone. The Chalcolithic i.e. copper bronze age or stone-copper age of India produced a splendid civilisation in the Indus Valley which spread in the neighbouring regions.

8.2.3. Burial Practices: Another striking feature was the burial practice of the dead. The dead were buried in north-south position in Maharashtra but in east-west position in south India. In eastern India, only a fraction of population buried their dead.

8.3. Iron age

8.3.1. Iron is clearly a useful tool, but is it magical? Many ancient people certainly thought so. Around the world, iron was often treated as something that represented purity and protected against malicious spells. Is there anything to this? The Iron Age was a period found at different points around the world where societies recovered from the collapse of Bronze-Age civilization, developed new tools, and built bigger, more complex civilizations than ever before. This is the era that gave Europe Aristotle, Plato, and Socrates. It's the time in which China developed Confucianism and Taoism.

8.3.2. vedic period mIndia's Iron Age emerged in an era of transition known as the Vedic period (ca. 1,500-600 BCE). The Vedic period covers both the end of the Bronze Age following the collapse of the Harappan civilization around 1,400 CE and the start of the Iron Age. The Harappan civilization of the Indus River Valley had been complex and highly urbanized. The societies of the Vedic period were smaller, most only about the size of a village, recovering from the changes in the regional economy as well as drought, the likely culprit that collapsed India's Bronze-Age stability.

8.3.3. The 16 Mahajanapadas From about 700-600 BCE, the Painted Grey Ware culture was replaced by the ceramic styles of a new tradition, known as the Northern Black Polished Ware culture (700-200 BCE). This change in ceramic styles was significant, and indicative of some other major changes in the subcontinent.