Insights of academic English

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Insights of academic English by Mind Map: Insights of  academic English

1. How do we use it?

1.1. Steps

1.1.1. Formulate the question you want to answer

1.1.2. Develop a thesis or hypothesis

1.1.3. Test that thesis

1.1.3.1. Gather data and state

1.1.3.1.1. Pros

1.1.3.1.2. Cons

1.1.4. Conclusion

1.1.4.1. Taking into account the characteristics of academic writing

1.2. Grammar

1.2.1. Tenses & Concordances

1.2.1.1. Verb tenses

1.2.1.1.1. Present

1.2.1.1.2. Past

1.2.1.1.3. Future

1.2.1.2. Subject-verb agreement

1.2.1.2.1. Gender

1.2.1.2.2. Number

1.2.2. Articles, nouns, and adjectives

1.2.2.1. Definite vs. Indefinite vs. No article

1.2.2.1.1. "I have to study for an exam"

1.2.2.1.2. "The IELTS exam certifies the proficiency in the English language."

1.2.2.1.3. "Exams are an indispensable fact of life for most university students."

1.2.2.1.4. EXERCISES (1)

1.2.2.2. Adjectivation

1.2.2.2.1. "A large number of evidences has been definitely collected for this study."

1.2.2.2.2. Quantifying adjectives = subjectivity

1.2.3. Active vs. Passive voice

1.2.3.1. Active voice: "Scientists from the University of Southern Mississippi classify glass as a solid." Passive voice: "Glass is classified as a solid."

1.2.3.1.1. · It lets fact stands on their own · Removes bias · Presents air of logic

1.2.3.2. EXERCISES (2)

1.2.3.2.1. ACT: His colleague is writing an interesting article. PAS: An interesting article is being written.

1.2.3.2.2. ACT: Teachers obtained significant improvement in the performance of students. PAS: Significant improvement in the students was obtained.

1.2.3.2.3. ACT: Scientists developed new models for the understanding of human behaviour. PAS: New models for the understanding of human behaviour was developed.

1.2.3.2.4. ACT: The students did their tasks in an organized way. PAS: The task was done in an organized way.

1.2.3.2.5. ACT: The President made mistakes. PAS: Mistakes were made.

1.2.4. Connectors

1.2.4.1. To add information

1.2.4.1.1. also, for example, for instance, moreover, in other words, in addition, more importantly, hence, thus, etc.

1.2.4.2. To contrast information

1.2.4.2.1. but, on the one hand, on the other hand, instead, although, even though, in spite of, however, in contrast, nevertheless, nonetheless, etc.

1.2.4.3. To conclude

1.2.4.3.1. finally, in conclusion, to sum up, in short, etc.

1.2.4.4. Useful resource for synonyms: https://thesaurus.com/

1.2.5. Spelling & Accuracy

1.2.5.1. Check your grammar, spelling, and punctuation by proofreading or using a spellchecker.

2. What is the purpose?

2.1. To present and evaluate academic issues and to arrive to an objective conclusion based on a research.

3. What are the characteristics?

3.1. Formal language

3.1.1. No contractions

3.1.1.1. That's unfortunate

3.1.1.2. That is unfortunate

3.1.2. No slang words

3.1.2.1. This chapter gives an overview

3.1.2.2. This chapter provides an overview

3.1.3. No emotionally-charged words

3.1.3.1. This impressive writing is of great and unique importance to this rather poorly researched field of knowledge.

3.1.3.2. This writing adds to the current understanding of actual knowledge.

3.2. Objective

3.2.1. Avoid "I", "we", "you" and use "it" or passive voice, instead.

3.3. Clear

3.3.1. Write with logical order and organized plan

3.3.1.1. Start writing early

3.3.1.2. Keep the easy's overall purpose

3.3.1.3. Plan ahead the structure of the essay

3.3.1.3.1. This will be the outline

3.3.1.4. Revise and proofread

3.4. Consistent

3.4.1. If we have a choice, we will use only one variety of English: British English or American English spelling.

3.4.1.1. Do not forget the target audience!

3.5. Balanced

3.5.1. Lenght

3.5.1.1. Average sentence lenght is 15-25 words

3.5.2. Content

3.5.2.1. Check-out list

3.5.2.1.1. Referencing

3.5.2.1.2. Spelling

3.5.2.1.3. Punctuation

3.5.2.1.4. Does each paragraph express an idea?

3.5.2.1.5. Is everything logically linked?

4. When do we use it?

4.1. Book report

4.2. Translations

4.3. Essays

4.4. Research papers

4.5. Academic journals

4.6. Dissertation papers

4.7. Abstracts

4.8. Explications