Teaching, Learning and Development- EDUC 5015Q

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Teaching, Learning and Development- EDUC 5015Q by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning and Development- EDUC 5015Q

1. I will most definitely use Backward Design when creating unit plans as I like how assessment is designed before lesson planning allowing that instruction drives students toward the essence of what they need to know

2. It is a good idea to have an understanding of your own multiple intelligence as it can help you as an individual learn. I am predominantly a linguistic learner as I enjoy being taught using spoken and written materials.

3. When writing my belief statement and teaching philosophy for my Social Foundations class (EDUC 5007), I talked about being a huge believer in ensuring that my classroom is a safe space for my students. As I want to support and encourage my students to succeed

4. I have learned a lot about assessment and evaluation in my Family Studies (EDUC 5210) course.

4.1. Assessment as Learning: process of developing and supporting student metacognition

4.2. Assessment for Learning: ongoing process of gathering and interpreting evidence about student learning

4.3. Assessment of Learning: process of collecting and interpreting evidence for the purpose off summarizing learning at a given point in time.

5. I have learned so much in Aboriginal Education (EDUC 5423Q) with Erica Neeganagwedgin. We have to work towards a decolonizing pedagogy for teachers to allow a classroom to be an equally safe space for all students.

6. I am personally against standardized tests in Canada as I can remember the pressures teachers and staff put on me to do well. Overall, giving me performance anxiety.

7. Quite interesting to learn that my prefrontal cortex became fully developed only 2 years ago.

8. I will spend an enormous amount of time planning and preparing for the upcoming year. I will do so through curriculum planning and classroom management planning

9. There has been a lot of debate around the benefits of standardized testing. Some believe it is a way to compare educational outcomes across schools.

10. Week 1: Early August: Planning for the Upcoming School Year

10.1. Educational Psychology

10.1.1. Schwab's 4 Commonplace Education Someone (the teacher) Teaches something (the curriculum) To someone else (the student) in some setting (the classroom)

10.1.2. 9 Educational Topics Learning and Cognition Development Social and Cultural Influences Motivation Behavioural and Class Management Individual Differences Assessment and Evaluation Teaching and Instruction Social Foundations of Curricula

10.1.3. Research Process Step 1: Observation of Phenomena Step 2: Formation of Questions Step 3: Application of Research Methods Step 4: Development of Guiding Principles Step 5: Development of Theories

10.2. Teacher Planning

10.2.1. Instructional Approaches Teacher-Centred Approach Student-Centred Approach

10.2.2. Curricular Planning Top-Down Approach Determine the curricula for the year Determine the curricula for each term Break the curricula down into units Determine what will be taught on a daily basis

11. Week 2: Late August: Considering Child and Adolescent Development

11.1. 5 Principles of Development

11.1.1. 1. Follows about which there is little argument

11.1.2. 2. Gradually progressive process, but it does not necessarily occur at a constant rate

11.1.3. 3. Involves quantitative and qualitative changes

11.1.4. 4. Individuals develop at different rates

11.1.5. 5. Results from influences of genetics (nature) and the environment (nurture)

11.2. Growth Mindset

11.2.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2zrtHt3bBmQ

11.2.2. Criticism and negative feedback are sources of information

11.2.3. Growth mindset individuals will improve and this will create a positive feedback loop that encourages them to keep learning and improving

11.3. Developmental Influences

11.3.1. Psychological/Biological Development Not typically influenced by anything that educators do or have control over Takes 20 years for the prefrontal cortex to become fully functional Teachers should help adolescents establish and live with there own learning and behavioural conventions

11.3.2. Cognitive/Learning Development Early Learning- Significant Factors Executive Cognitive Functioning Innate Curiosity Learning How to Learn

11.4. The Psychological Structures of Learning (Piaget)

11.4.1. Innate Drive to Organize Piaget: "schemas" A schema is a simple mental representation of an item happening

11.4.2. Innate Drive to Adjust Piaget: "adoption" Adjust to ones surrounding environment

12. Week 3: Views of Learning: Cognitive, Behavioural, Social and Constructivist

12.1. Toyota's 5 Whys

12.1.1. Used to explore cause and effect

12.1.2. To determine the root cause of a defect or problem by repeating the question "Why?"

12.1.3. The "5" in the name derives from an anecdotal observation on the number of iterations needed to resolve the problem

12.2. Behaviourist Approach

12.2.1. Human behaviour is learned

12.2.2. Behaviourism

12.3. Cognitive Approach

12.3.1. Cognitive/Learning Development How and why learning occurs or does not occur How learning processes evolve and change over time Cognitive skills and concepts learned in the early school years are critical for all other later achievement expectations

12.3.2. Early Learning- Significant Factors Important influences on children pathway to school

12.3.3. Executive Cognitive Functioning Organize, co-ordinate, and reflect on their thinking and achieve more efficient processing outcomes Forces them t ouse an executive learning strategy, which attaches more meaning to what is being learned Example: Use an acronym like BEDMAS

12.3.4. Innate Curiosity Human beings are born with an innately powerful curiosity about the world around them Adapt ones behaviour in order to exist and survive within it Learn by observing others (mimic) and through direct guidance (teaching) Curiosity: desire to know

12.3.5. Learning how to Learn Innate psychological mechanisms that allow them t learn how to learn Sine Qua Non: brain uses learning mechanisms depending on what is encountered in the environment

12.3.6. From Disequilibrium to Equilibrium Scheme Assimilate Accommodate Piaget felt that the brain's constant desire for equilibrium is the mark of intelligence

12.3.7. Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor (0-2) Preoperational (2-6/7) Concrete Operations (6/7-11/12) Formal Operations (11/12-adulthood)

12.4. Constructivist Approach

12.4.1. Vygotsky Zone of Proximal Development Social Interation Scaffolding

12.4.2. Bronfenbrenner Ecological Theory Microsystem Mesosystem Exosystem Mesosystem Chronosystem

13. Week 4: First Week of School: Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

13.1. Effective Teaching and Learning

13.1.1. Cannot take place in a poorly managed/structured classroom

13.1.2. Provide feedback

13.1.3. Respond supportively

13.1.4. Ask questions

13.1.5. Use time effectively

13.2. Features of Communities of Learners

13.2.1. Job-embedded

13.2.2. Collaborative

13.2.3. Ongoing

13.2.4. Student-centred

13.2.5. Improve student achievement

13.3. Exemplary Learning Environments

13.3.1. Academic success is dependent on the learning environment

13.3.2. Require good planning and good classroom management

13.3.3. Goal: provide all students with optimum opportunities of learning

13.4. Self

13.4.1. Self-Efficacy Personal beliefs about our competence or effectiveness in a given area

13.4.2. Self-Regulation

13.5. Resiliancy

13.5.1. Cannot ignore the emotional well-being of students

13.5.2. Sense of Belonging Supports the educational bases of motivation. learning, and self-discipline

13.5.3. Resiliency in Students Schools must provide social and emotional intervention Self-esteem and sense of competence are intact Feels connected and make contributions

13.6. Supporting Self-Regulated Learning

13.6.1. Tasks Should be complex

13.6.2. Control Students make decisions Have choices Take responsibility for planning, setting goals, judging progress

13.6.3. Self-Evaluation Monitor their own processes and outcomes Adjust their efforts in order to attain goals

13.6.4. Collaboration Students and teachers engage in shared problem-solving

13.7. Well-Being in the Classroom

13.7.1. Being and feel connected

13.7.2. Feel autonomous and posses a sense of self-determination

13.7.3. Feel competent, successful, and accomplished

14. Week 5: Mid/Late September: Making Instructional Decisions

14.1. Universal Instructional Design

14.1.1. Concept of equitable accessibility and utility

14.1.2. Link: Universal Instructional Design

14.2. Theoretical Basis of Instruction

14.2.1. Cognitive Strategies "Good Thinker" Effectively use cognitive strategies Thinking must be strategic and systematic Promotes the understanding and retention of knowledge Working memory Short-term memory Long-term memory Metacognition

14.2.2. Select-Organize-Integrate Model of meaningful learning Meaningful learning occurs when students engage in three cognitive processes 1. Selecting relevant information 2. Organizing the selected information 3. Integrating the organized information with prior knowledge

14.3. Motivational Underpinnings

14.3.1. Tasks Dynamic and open Appeal to a broader range

14.3.2. Instructional Practices Teach problem-solving strategies Challenge students Personal relatedness Intellectual respect

14.3.3. Classroom Relationships Encourage student engagement Encourage student discussions Elicit student perspective Withhold judgement

14.4. Direct Instruction

14.4.1. Systematic Instructional Method

14.4.2. Small amount of information and providing lots of practice

14.4.3. Mate basic facts and skills

14.5. Student Problem-Solving

14.5.1. Verbal Protocol Analysis Students attempt a task of problem and teachers infer their strategy ability from the demonstrated outcome Students described their thinking and or talk out loud as they complete a task

14.5.2. Problem-, Project-, and Inquiry-Based Learning Student Centred Constructivist and Instructional Approach 1. Help students design comprehensive curricular tasks 2. Complete tasks with peers collaboratively 3. Create specific educational products 4. Reflect on their learning experiences

15. Week 6: Late September: Knowing that the Students Know

15.1. Instructional-Dagnistic Assessment

15.1.1. Determine that you teach is not as straightforward as it seems

15.1.2. Establish students current level of knowledge and skills

15.2. Learning Styles

15.2.1. Visual

15.2.2. Auditory

15.2.3. Tactile

15.3. Linking Assessment and Instruction

15.3.1. What do I want my students to learn?

15.3.2. How will I determine or not they have learned?

15.3.3. What will I teach?

15.3.4. How will I teach it?

15.4. Basics of Curriculum Planning

15.4.1. Expectations

15.4.2. Assessment and Evaluation

15.4.3. Teaching Strategies

15.4.4. Topics, Themes, Resources

15.5. Learning Objectives and Lesson Plans

15.5.1. Backward Design Develop curricular units and lessons that are derived form the identical instruction goals/learning objectives that are used in creating assessment tools First knowing where they want to take their students Wiggins and McTighe What is expected to be learned What is taught How it is taught Questions used to assess student learning

15.6. Bloom's Taxonomy

15.6.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OOy3m02uEaE&t=13s

16. Week 7: Early December: Individual Differences-Intellectual Abilities and Challenges

16.1. Intelligence

16.1.1. Carroll's Hierarchal Model of Intelligence Most Important Fluid Intelligence Crystallized Intelligence Visual-Spatial Reasoning

16.2. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences

16.2.1. 1. Linguistic

16.2.2. 2. Logical-Mathematical

16.2.3. 3. Spatial

16.2.4. 4. Musical

16.2.5. 5. Bodily-Kinesthetic

16.2.6. 6. Interpersonal

16.2.7. 7. Intrapersonal

16.2.8. 8. Naturalistic

16.3. Intelligence as Processes

16.3.1. Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Analytical/Componential Intelligence Creative/Experiential Intelligence Practical/Contextual Intelligence

16.4. Intelligence Test

16.4.1. Cognitive Indexes of the WISC-IV Verbal Comprehension Perceptual Reasoning Working Memory Processing Speed

16.5. Special Education

16.5.1. What is Special Education? Accommodating the special learning needs of students with exceptionalities Specialized instruction based on the assessment of students' abilities

16.5.2. Individualized Education Programs (IEP) The Six Phases of Assessment and the IEP Process Phase 1: Identification Phase 2: Diagnostic Instruction Phase 3: Referral Phase 4: Assessment/IEP Phase 5: Educational Intervention Phase 6: Evaluation of Student Progress

16.6. Students with Specific Learning Disorders

16.6.1. Common Learning and Behavioural Characteristics Disorders of Attention Poor Motor Abilities Psychological Processing Deficits Lack of Phonological Awareness Poor Cognitive Strategies for Learning Oral Language Difficulties Reading Difficulties Writing Difficulties Mathematics Social Skills

17. Week 8: Early February: Socio-Cultural Considerations

17.1. Socio-Cultural Perspectives

17.1.1. Critical Consciousness Political values and beliefs An ideological clarity A social-cultural consciousness

17.1.2. Culturally Responsive Practice Broad cultural knowledge Instructional base that grows and changes

17.1.3. Making Connections Achieving Believing Caring

17.2. Stereotype Threat

17.2.1. Fear that one's behaviour will confirm a negate stereotype about one's identity

17.2.2. Those with strong ties to heir identity group are most vulnerable

17.2.3. Can be brought on by seemingly innocuous comments

17.3. Socio-Economic Status

17.3.1. Greatest impact on scholastic achievement

17.3.2. Children from Low SES Homes Development is at risk Economic hardships Scarcity of resources

17.4. Different Views of Multicultural Education

17.4.1. Diversity Valued No culture considered dominant

17.4.2. Dominant culture stressed Surviving in real world

17.4.3. Diversity and dominant culture Valued striking a balance

17.4.4. Bank's Dimensions of Multicultural Education

17.5. Aboriginal Education

17.5.1. Risk Factors School failures Poor access to technology Negative teacher attitudes toward Aboriginal students Poor home- school communication Lack of qualified teachers Lack of resources

17.5.2. Protective Factors 1. Early intervention 2. Resiliency 3. Positive self-image 4. Engagement by families 5. Community involvement 6. Relevant programming 7. Connections to Aboriginal role models and supports

18. Week 9: End of School Year

18.1. Standardized Testing in Canada

18.1.1. Federal Achievement levels of 13 year olds (math, reading, and science)

18.1.2. Provincial/Territorial Different uses including math and literacy testing at certain levels Grade 12 exit exams

18.2. Test Types

18.2.1. Criterion-Referenced Student's score determined by comparing performance to established criteria

18.2.2. Norm-Referenced Student's score determined by comparing performance to that of other students