Teaching, Learning and Development- EDUC 5015Q

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Teaching, Learning and Development- EDUC 5015Q by Mind Map: Teaching, Learning and Development- EDUC 5015Q

1. I will most definitely use Backward Design when creating unit plans as I like how assessment is designed before lesson planning allowing that instruction drives students toward the essence of what they need to know

2. It is a good idea to have an understanding of your own multiple intelligence as it can help you as an individual learn. I am predominantly a linguistic learner as I enjoy being taught using spoken and written materials.

3. When writing my belief statement and teaching philosophy for my Social Foundations class (EDUC 5007), I talked about being a huge believer in ensuring that my classroom is a safe space for my students. As I want to support and encourage my students to succeed

4. I have learned a lot about assessment and evaluation in my Family Studies (EDUC 5210) course.

4.1. Assessment as Learning: process of developing and supporting student metacognition

4.2. Assessment for Learning: ongoing process of gathering and interpreting evidence about student learning

4.3. Assessment of Learning: process of collecting and interpreting evidence for the purpose off summarizing learning at a given point in time.

5. I have learned so much in Aboriginal Education (EDUC 5423Q) with Erica Neeganagwedgin. We have to work towards a decolonizing pedagogy for teachers to allow a classroom to be an equally safe space for all students.

6. I am personally against standardized tests in Canada as I can remember the pressures teachers and staff put on me to do well. Overall, giving me performance anxiety.

7. Quite interesting to learn that my prefrontal cortex became fully developed only 2 years ago.

8. I will spend an enormous amount of time planning and preparing for the upcoming year. I will do so through curriculum planning and classroom management planning

9. There has been a lot of debate around the benefits of standardized testing. Some believe it is a way to compare educational outcomes across schools.

10. Week 1: Early August: Planning for the Upcoming School Year

10.1. Educational Psychology

10.1.1. Schwab's 4 Commonplace Education

10.1.1.1. Someone (the teacher)

10.1.1.2. Teaches something (the curriculum)

10.1.1.3. To someone else (the student)

10.1.1.4. in some setting (the classroom)

10.1.2. 9 Educational Topics

10.1.2.1. Learning and Cognition

10.1.2.2. Development

10.1.2.3. Social and Cultural Influences

10.1.2.4. Motivation

10.1.2.5. Behavioural and Class Management

10.1.2.6. Individual Differences

10.1.2.7. Assessment and Evaluation

10.1.2.8. Teaching and Instruction

10.1.2.9. Social Foundations of Curricula

10.1.3. Research Process

10.1.3.1. Step 1: Observation of Phenomena

10.1.3.2. Step 2: Formation of Questions

10.1.3.3. Step 3: Application of Research Methods

10.1.3.4. Step 4: Development of Guiding Principles

10.1.3.5. Step 5: Development of Theories

10.2. Teacher Planning

10.2.1. Instructional Approaches

10.2.1.1. Teacher-Centred Approach

10.2.1.2. Student-Centred Approach

10.2.2. Curricular Planning

10.2.2.1. Top-Down Approach

10.2.2.1.1. Determine the curricula for the year

10.2.2.1.2. Determine the curricula for each term

10.2.2.1.3. Break the curricula down into units

10.2.2.1.4. Determine what will be taught on a daily basis

11. Week 2: Late August: Considering Child and Adolescent Development

11.1. 5 Principles of Development

11.1.1. 1. Follows about which there is little argument

11.1.2. 2. Gradually progressive process, but it does not necessarily occur at a constant rate

11.1.3. 3. Involves quantitative and qualitative changes

11.1.4. 4. Individuals develop at different rates

11.1.5. 5. Results from influences of genetics (nature) and the environment (nurture)

11.2. Growth Mindset

11.2.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2zrtHt3bBmQ

11.2.2. Criticism and negative feedback are sources of information

11.2.3. Growth mindset individuals will improve and this will create a positive feedback loop that encourages them to keep learning and improving

11.3. Developmental Influences

11.3.1. Psychological/Biological Development

11.3.1.1. Not typically influenced by anything that educators do or have control over

11.3.1.2. Takes 20 years for the prefrontal cortex to become fully functional

11.3.1.3. Teachers should help adolescents establish and live with there own learning and behavioural conventions

11.3.2. Cognitive/Learning Development

11.3.2.1. Early Learning- Significant Factors

11.3.2.2. Executive Cognitive Functioning

11.3.2.3. Innate Curiosity

11.3.2.4. Learning How to Learn

11.4. The Psychological Structures of Learning (Piaget)

11.4.1. Innate Drive to Organize

11.4.1.1. Piaget: "schemas"

11.4.1.1.1. A schema is a simple mental representation of an item happening

11.4.2. Innate Drive to Adjust

11.4.2.1. Piaget: "adoption"

11.4.2.1.1. Adjust to ones surrounding environment

12. Week 3: Views of Learning: Cognitive, Behavioural, Social and Constructivist

12.1. Toyota's 5 Whys

12.1.1. Used to explore cause and effect

12.1.2. To determine the root cause of a defect or problem by repeating the question "Why?"

12.1.3. The "5" in the name derives from an anecdotal observation on the number of iterations needed to resolve the problem

12.2. Behaviourist Approach

12.2.1. Human behaviour is learned

12.2.2. Behaviourism

12.3. Cognitive Approach

12.3.1. Cognitive/Learning Development

12.3.1.1. How and why learning occurs or does not occur

12.3.1.2. How learning processes evolve and change over time

12.3.1.3. Cognitive skills and concepts learned in the early school years are critical for all other later achievement expectations

12.3.2. Early Learning- Significant Factors

12.3.2.1. Important influences on children pathway to school

12.3.3. Executive Cognitive Functioning

12.3.3.1. Organize, co-ordinate, and reflect on their thinking and achieve more efficient processing outcomes

12.3.3.2. Forces them t ouse an executive learning strategy, which attaches more meaning to what is being learned

12.3.3.2.1. Example: Use an acronym like BEDMAS

12.3.4. Innate Curiosity

12.3.4.1. Human beings are born with an innately powerful curiosity about the world around them

12.3.4.2. Adapt ones behaviour in order to exist and survive within it

12.3.4.3. Learn by observing others (mimic) and through direct guidance (teaching)

12.3.4.4. Curiosity: desire to know

12.3.5. Learning how to Learn

12.3.5.1. Innate psychological mechanisms that allow them t learn how to learn

12.3.5.2. Sine Qua Non: brain uses learning mechanisms depending on what is encountered in the environment

12.3.6. From Disequilibrium to Equilibrium

12.3.6.1. Scheme

12.3.6.2. Assimilate

12.3.6.3. Accommodate

12.3.6.4. Piaget felt that the brain's constant desire for equilibrium is the mark of intelligence

12.3.7. Piaget's Four Stages of Cognitive Development

12.3.7.1. Sensorimotor (0-2)

12.3.7.2. Preoperational (2-6/7)

12.3.7.3. Concrete Operations (6/7-11/12)

12.3.7.4. Formal Operations (11/12-adulthood)

12.4. Constructivist Approach

12.4.1. Vygotsky

12.4.1.1. Zone of Proximal Development

12.4.1.2. Social Interation

12.4.1.3. Scaffolding

12.4.2. Bronfenbrenner

12.4.2.1. Ecological Theory

12.4.2.1.1. Microsystem

12.4.2.1.2. Mesosystem

12.4.2.1.3. Exosystem

12.4.2.1.4. Mesosystem

12.4.2.1.5. Chronosystem

13. Week 4: First Week of School: Establishing a Positive Learning Environment

13.1. Effective Teaching and Learning

13.1.1. Cannot take place in a poorly managed/structured classroom

13.1.2. Provide feedback

13.1.3. Respond supportively

13.1.4. Ask questions

13.1.5. Use time effectively

13.2. Features of Communities of Learners

13.2.1. Job-embedded

13.2.2. Collaborative

13.2.3. Ongoing

13.2.4. Student-centred

13.2.5. Improve student achievement

13.3. Exemplary Learning Environments

13.3.1. Academic success is dependent on the learning environment

13.3.2. Require good planning and good classroom management

13.3.3. Goal: provide all students with optimum opportunities of learning

13.4. Self

13.4.1. Self-Efficacy

13.4.1.1. Personal beliefs about our competence or effectiveness in a given area

13.4.2. Self-Regulation

13.5. Resiliancy

13.5.1. Cannot ignore the emotional well-being of students

13.5.2. Sense of Belonging

13.5.2.1. Supports the educational bases of motivation. learning, and self-discipline

13.5.3. Resiliency in Students

13.5.3.1. Schools must provide social and emotional intervention

13.5.3.2. Self-esteem and sense of competence are intact

13.5.3.3. Feels connected and make contributions

13.6. Supporting Self-Regulated Learning

13.6.1. Tasks

13.6.1.1. Should be complex

13.6.2. Control

13.6.2.1. Students make decisions

13.6.2.2. Have choices

13.6.2.3. Take responsibility for planning, setting goals, judging progress

13.6.3. Self-Evaluation

13.6.3.1. Monitor their own processes and outcomes

13.6.3.2. Adjust their efforts in order to attain goals

13.6.4. Collaboration

13.6.4.1. Students and teachers engage in shared problem-solving

13.7. Well-Being in the Classroom

13.7.1. Being and feel connected

13.7.2. Feel autonomous and posses a sense of self-determination

13.7.3. Feel competent, successful, and accomplished

14. Week 5: Mid/Late September: Making Instructional Decisions

14.1. Universal Instructional Design

14.1.1. Concept of equitable accessibility and utility

14.1.2. Link: Universal Instructional Design

14.2. Theoretical Basis of Instruction

14.2.1. Cognitive Strategies

14.2.1.1. "Good Thinker"

14.2.1.1.1. Effectively use cognitive strategies

14.2.1.1.2. Thinking must be strategic and systematic

14.2.1.2. Promotes the understanding and retention of knowledge

14.2.1.3. Working memory

14.2.1.3.1. Short-term memory

14.2.1.3.2. Long-term memory

14.2.1.4. Metacognition

14.2.2. Select-Organize-Integrate

14.2.2.1. Model of meaningful learning

14.2.2.2. Meaningful learning occurs when students engage in three cognitive processes

14.2.2.2.1. 1. Selecting relevant information

14.2.2.2.2. 2. Organizing the selected information

14.2.2.2.3. 3. Integrating the organized information with prior knowledge

14.3. Motivational Underpinnings

14.3.1. Tasks

14.3.1.1. Dynamic and open

14.3.1.2. Appeal to a broader range

14.3.2. Instructional Practices

14.3.2.1. Teach problem-solving strategies

14.3.2.2. Challenge students

14.3.2.3. Personal relatedness

14.3.2.4. Intellectual respect

14.3.3. Classroom Relationships

14.3.3.1. Encourage student engagement

14.3.3.2. Encourage student discussions

14.3.3.3. Elicit student perspective

14.3.3.4. Withhold judgement

14.4. Direct Instruction

14.4.1. Systematic Instructional Method

14.4.2. Small amount of information and providing lots of practice

14.4.3. Mate basic facts and skills

14.5. Student Problem-Solving

14.5.1. Verbal Protocol Analysis

14.5.1.1. Students attempt a task of problem and teachers infer their strategy ability from the demonstrated outcome

14.5.1.2. Students described their thinking and or talk out loud as they complete a task

14.5.2. Problem-, Project-, and Inquiry-Based Learning

14.5.2.1. Student Centred Constructivist and Instructional Approach

14.5.2.1.1. 1. Help students design comprehensive curricular tasks

14.5.2.1.2. 2. Complete tasks with peers collaboratively

14.5.2.1.3. 3. Create specific educational products

14.5.2.1.4. 4. Reflect on their learning experiences

15. Week 6: Late September: Knowing that the Students Know

15.1. Instructional-Dagnistic Assessment

15.1.1. Determine that you teach is not as straightforward as it seems

15.1.2. Establish students current level of knowledge and skills

15.2. Learning Styles

15.2.1. Visual

15.2.2. Auditory

15.2.3. Tactile

15.3. Linking Assessment and Instruction

15.3.1. What do I want my students to learn?

15.3.2. How will I determine or not they have learned?

15.3.3. What will I teach?

15.3.4. How will I teach it?

15.4. Basics of Curriculum Planning

15.4.1. Expectations

15.4.2. Assessment and Evaluation

15.4.3. Teaching Strategies

15.4.4. Topics, Themes, Resources

15.5. Learning Objectives and Lesson Plans

15.5.1. Backward Design

15.5.1.1. Develop curricular units and lessons that are derived form the identical instruction goals/learning objectives that are used in creating assessment tools

15.5.1.2. First knowing where they want to take their students

15.5.1.3. Wiggins and McTighe

15.5.1.3.1. What is expected to be learned

15.5.1.3.2. What is taught

15.5.1.3.3. How it is taught

15.5.1.3.4. Questions used to assess student learning

15.6. Bloom's Taxonomy

15.6.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OOy3m02uEaE&t=13s

16. Week 7: Early December: Individual Differences-Intellectual Abilities and Challenges

16.1. Intelligence

16.1.1. Carroll's Hierarchal Model of Intelligence

16.1.1.1. Most Important

16.1.1.1.1. Fluid Intelligence

16.1.1.1.2. Crystallized Intelligence

16.1.1.1.3. Visual-Spatial Reasoning

16.2. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences

16.2.1. 1. Linguistic

16.2.2. 2. Logical-Mathematical

16.2.3. 3. Spatial

16.2.4. 4. Musical

16.2.5. 5. Bodily-Kinesthetic

16.2.6. 6. Interpersonal

16.2.7. 7. Intrapersonal

16.2.8. 8. Naturalistic

16.3. Intelligence as Processes

16.3.1. Sternberg's Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

16.3.1.1. Analytical/Componential Intelligence

16.3.1.2. Creative/Experiential Intelligence

16.3.1.3. Practical/Contextual Intelligence

16.4. Intelligence Test

16.4.1. Cognitive Indexes of the WISC-IV

16.4.1.1. Verbal Comprehension

16.4.1.2. Perceptual Reasoning

16.4.1.3. Working Memory

16.4.1.4. Processing Speed

16.5. Special Education

16.5.1. What is Special Education?

16.5.1.1. Accommodating the special learning needs of students with exceptionalities

16.5.1.2. Specialized instruction based on the assessment of students' abilities

16.5.2. Individualized Education Programs (IEP)

16.5.2.1. The Six Phases of Assessment and the IEP Process

16.5.2.1.1. Phase 1: Identification

16.5.2.1.2. Phase 2: Diagnostic Instruction

16.5.2.1.3. Phase 3: Referral

16.5.2.1.4. Phase 4: Assessment/IEP

16.5.2.1.5. Phase 5: Educational Intervention

16.5.2.1.6. Phase 6: Evaluation of Student Progress

16.6. Students with Specific Learning Disorders

16.6.1. Common Learning and Behavioural Characteristics

16.6.1.1. Disorders of Attention

16.6.1.2. Poor Motor Abilities

16.6.1.3. Psychological Processing Deficits

16.6.1.4. Lack of Phonological Awareness

16.6.1.5. Poor Cognitive Strategies for Learning

16.6.1.6. Oral Language Difficulties

16.6.1.7. Reading Difficulties

16.6.1.8. Writing Difficulties

16.6.1.9. Mathematics

16.6.1.10. Social Skills

17. Week 8: Early February: Socio-Cultural Considerations

17.1. Socio-Cultural Perspectives

17.1.1. Critical Consciousness

17.1.1.1. Political values and beliefs

17.1.1.2. An ideological clarity

17.1.1.3. A social-cultural consciousness

17.1.2. Culturally Responsive Practice

17.1.2.1. Broad cultural knowledge

17.1.2.2. Instructional base that grows and changes

17.1.3. Making Connections

17.1.3.1. Achieving

17.1.3.2. Believing

17.1.3.3. Caring

17.2. Stereotype Threat

17.2.1. Fear that one's behaviour will confirm a negate stereotype about one's identity

17.2.2. Those with strong ties to heir identity group are most vulnerable

17.2.3. Can be brought on by seemingly innocuous comments

17.3. Socio-Economic Status

17.3.1. Greatest impact on scholastic achievement

17.3.2. Children from Low SES Homes

17.3.2.1. Development is at risk

17.3.2.2. Economic hardships

17.3.2.3. Scarcity of resources

17.4. Different Views of Multicultural Education

17.4.1. Diversity Valued

17.4.1.1. No culture considered dominant

17.4.2. Dominant culture stressed

17.4.2.1. Surviving in real world

17.4.3. Diversity and dominant culture

17.4.3.1. Valued striking a balance

17.4.4. Bank's Dimensions of Multicultural Education

17.5. Aboriginal Education

17.5.1. Risk Factors

17.5.1.1. School failures

17.5.1.2. Poor access to technology

17.5.1.3. Negative teacher attitudes toward Aboriginal students

17.5.1.4. Poor home- school communication

17.5.1.5. Lack of qualified teachers

17.5.1.6. Lack of resources

17.5.2. Protective Factors

17.5.2.1. 1. Early intervention

17.5.2.2. 2. Resiliency

17.5.2.3. 3. Positive self-image

17.5.2.4. 4. Engagement by families

17.5.2.5. 5. Community involvement

17.5.2.6. 6. Relevant programming

17.5.2.7. 7. Connections to Aboriginal role models and supports

18. Week 9: End of School Year

18.1. Standardized Testing in Canada

18.1.1. Federal

18.1.1.1. Achievement levels of 13 year olds (math, reading, and science)

18.1.2. Provincial/Territorial

18.1.2.1. Different uses including math and literacy testing at certain levels

18.1.2.2. Grade 12 exit exams

18.2. Test Types

18.2.1. Criterion-Referenced

18.2.1.1. Student's score determined by comparing performance to established criteria

18.2.2. Norm-Referenced

18.2.2.1. Student's score determined by comparing performance to that of other students