Religion Essays

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Religion Essays by Mind Map: Religion Essays

1. Mary Mackillop Context / Religion

1.1. Poverty

1.1.1. Born 15th January 1842 Fitzroy Melbourne

1.1.2. Poor household, 8 children

1.1.3. "My life as a child was one of sorrow, my home when I had it a most unhappy one

1.1.4. "I looked for poverty more like that practised in the early religious Orders of the Church"

1.1.5. Formed Sisters of St Joseph of the Sacred Heart

1.1.6. "Just as you did it to... members of my family, you did it to me" (Matthew 25:40)

1.2. Suffering

1.2.1. Strengthened relationship with God

1.2.2. Ecclesiastical authorities implemented rules impeding her service to God

1.2.3. Father Horan and fellow sisters led to excommunication

1.2.4. Never slandered or blamed, believed they were misinformed

1.2.5. "I am sure he will find that some things have been misrepresented to him" "Please pray for him as I do"

1.3. Church Authority (Father Woods)

1.3.1. Shared view that all children deserve education, became Catholic Director of Education

1.3.2. Provided true guidance and wisdom, as well as materials to interact with faith

1.3.3. Encouraged Mary to form SoSJotSH

1.4. Evangelisation

1.4.1. Significant part of work due to its encouragement by Catholic Church

1.4.2. "Make disciples of all nations" (Matthew 28:19)

1.4.3. Provided children with a holistic Catholic education otherwise unavailable to them

1.4.4. Exactly as Jesus would have taught, providing moral compass, drawing away from sin and toward goodness

1.4.5. "The Church... strives to preach the Gospel to all men" (CCC 849)

1.4.6. "Never see a need without doing something about it"

2. Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus

2.1. Define

2.1.1. "Outside the Church there is no salvation"

2.1.2. "All salvation comes from Christ the Head through the Church which is His Body" (CCC 846)

2.1.3. Those who actively reject Catholicism forego salvation

2.2. Apostolic

2.2.1. Church fathers initially agreed

2.2.2. "There is salvation in... no other name under heaven" (St Peter Acts 4:12)

2.2.3. "A maker of schism [cannot] inherit the kingdom of God" (Ignatius of Antioch)

2.2.4. "There can be no salvation for anyone except in the Church" (St Cyprian)

2.2.5. Interpreted to mean that many would be damned through no fault of their own

2.3. 15th Century

2.3.1. New lands discovered, millions of people knew nothing of Christ or Catholicism

2.3.2. "If they live a good life according to the law of nature... He will illuminate them" (Francisco de Vitoria)

2.3.3. "Erroneous faith does not condemn... [granted] they are invincibly ignorant" (Albert Pigge)

2.4. 20th Century

2.4.1. "They cannot be sure of their own salvation" (Pope Pius XII 1943)

2.4.2. "God can lead those who, through no fault of their own, are ignorant of the Gospel" (CCC 848)

2.4.3. Initial statement unchanged. Conscious rejection of Christ leads to no salvation

3. Magisterium

3.1. Signifies Church authority bestowed by Holy Spirit at Pentecost

3.1.1. Pope

3.1.1.1. Bishop of Rome

3.1.1.2. Source guidance / authority

3.1.1.3. Pontifical teachings are infallible

3.1.2. Bishops

3.1.2.1. Responsible for diocese

3.1.2.2. Spread important teachings

3.1.2.3. Occasionally provide sacraments

4. Views on Religion

4.1. Belief System

4.1.1. Assumes correct basis of beliefs, answers questions of meaning and purpose, meets spiritual needs

4.1.2. "We have to encourage people to move towards what they think is good" (Pope Francis)

4.1.3. Provides spiritual strengthening, improved mental well-being

4.1.4. "It is [religion] which makes the world worth living" (Mahamat Gandhi)

4.2. Function Agency

4.2.1. Variety of cultures came to similar conclusion, proving usefulness

4.2.2. Organised system promoting stable society, health and well-being

4.2.3. "The Commonwealth shall not make any law... prohibiting the free exercise of any religion"

4.2.4. Assists formation of firm morals and laws

4.2.5. "Visiting a place of worship may trigger a significant reduction in the likelihood of involvement in... criminal... behaviour" (Manchester University)

4.3. Political Entity

4.3.1. Negative view commonly held by atheists due to conflicting opinions / disagreements with fundamental religious practices and teachings

4.3.2. Formed purely to manipulate / influence followers, enforcing values

4.3.3. Religion causes disputes, death, destruction

4.3.4. "All religion... is simply evolved out of fraud, fear, greed, imagination" (Edgar Allen Poe)

5. Vatican II

5.1. Historical Context

5.1.1. Ecumenical Council held from 1962 - 1965

5.1.2. "Open the windows and let in fresh air" (Pope John XXIII)

5.1.3. Response to direction of society in 1950s, great fear and alarm after war, prospect of another, sweep of poverty

5.1.4. Previously, Church social centre communication, decline due to technology

5.1.5. Everchanging society, address modern world "aggiornamento" "ressourcement"

5.1.5.1. "Bring up to date"

5.1.5.2. "Return to the source"

5.1.6. Pope John XXIII progressive / worldly man, confidence to hold council

5.2. Sacrosanctum Concilium

5.2.1. Well known constitution, affected all lay people and clergy through liturgy

5.2.2. "The liturgy... is the font from which all her [The Church's] power flows" (SC 10)

5.2.3. Could not be source of power if not participating fully in proceedings

5.2.4. Liturgy reformed to vernacular of people, roles assigned to congregation, rituals less complex

5.2.5. "All the faithful should be led to that fully conscious, and active participation in liturgical celebrations" (SC 14)

5.3. Nostra Aetate

5.3.1. Lesser known declaration on inter-religious dialogue, addressing importance of unity within human race, sharing a common origin and destiny

5.3.2. Historically religion provides philosophical answers to; life death, suffering, morals

5.3.3. Recognises all religions are a response to the hidden powers of God

5.3.4. "Catholic Church rejects nothing that is true and holy in these religions" (NA 2)

5.3.5. Encourages dissolution of differences, find similarities in teachings and beliefs

5.3.6. "Father" no matter religion, brothers and sisters in image and likeness to God

5.3.7. Catholics encouraged to accept neighbours and promote peace

5.4. Impact

5.4.1. Immense impact Catholic Church, overall well thought out but poor implementation led to negative outcomes

5.4.2. Western society parishes took different perspectives, causing schisms between conservationists and progressives

5.4.3. Liberals sought womens' ordination

5.4.4. Reassured traditional beliefs were not to be changed, cemented in 1968 Humanae Vitae prohibiting contraception

5.4.5. Positive effects due to reformation of liturgy, emphasis on family evangelisation and celebrating faith as a community

6. Globalisation

6.1. Catholic View

6.1.1. Generating tension and conflict

6.1.2. Expansion of knowledge, no boundaries, freely interact and travel

6.1.3. "Go and make disciples of all nations" (Matthew 28:19)

6.1.4. "I recognise globalisation has helped many people rise out of poverty, but it has also damned many others to starve to death" (Pope Francis)

6.2. Oppression

6.2.1. International corporations exploitation of impoverished labourers for profit

6.2.2. 3 billion people living on less than $2.50 USD per day (DoSomething.org)

6.2.3. Unjust economy due to neglect of POFTP

6.2.4. "Unacceptable" "Inhumane" (Pope Francis)

6.2.5. "Those who hold goods... should use them with moderation, reserving the better part for guests, for the sick, and poor" (CCC 2405)

6.2.6. Catholic organisations such as Caritas, TEAR, CARE provide aid to poor

6.2.7. Caritas 16-17 Report, $30M donated

6.2.8. April, clean water, shelter, counselling to PNG earthquake victims

6.3. Destruction of Environment

6.3.1. Consumerism driving force economy, spending constantly increases resource consumption

6.3.2. 3.5 - 7 billion trees per year (Rainforest Action Network Organisation)

6.3.3. "The LORD God took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden to work it and take care of it" (Genesis 2:15)

6.3.4. "Man and woman have... responsibility for the world God has entrusted to them" (CCC 373)

6.3.5. Stewardship of Creation

6.3.6. Catholic Earthcare Australia formed by Australian Catholic Bishops Conference provides framework for sustainable development in schools and parishes

6.3.7. In April 35 Catholic Institutions moved away from using fossil fuels

6.3.8. "Hear the cry of the Earth" (Laudato Si)

6.4. Conflict

6.4.1. Enhanced by communication between countries, stronger ties but also stronger hatred

6.4.2. Wars Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria innocent soldiers dying

6.4.3. Rising death toll as amplified scale wars

6.4.4. "All war is accompanied by evil and injustice and so the Church urges everyone to pray and act so that we may be freed from the bondage of war" (CCC 2307)

6.4.5. "By reasoning, patience and dialogue... it is possible to identify and travel the paths of understanding and peace" (PJPII 1990)

6.4.6. Caritas anti-war initiatives provided 531 Sri Lankan youth training in non-violent communication and conflict resolution

7. Theology of the Body

7.1. Definition of Freedom

7.1.1. Ability to desire / choose good

7.1.2. Secular pollutes definition, no constraints on choices (inauthentic)

7.2. Contraception

7.2.1. Deliberate artificial prevention possible pregnancy

7.2.2. Sexual revolution normalised contraception

7.2.3. "Excluded is any action... specifically intended to prevent procreation" (Humanae Vitae 14)

7.2.4. "Be fruitful and multiply" (Genesis 1:28)

7.2.5. Solution: NFP to utilise natural cycle of woman's reproductive system. Natural and requires self-control during fertile periods

7.3. Promiscuity

7.3.1. Having multiple sexual partners

7.3.2. Secular culture glorifies as freedom, but is opposite of authentic freedom

7.3.3. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, correlation between teenage depression and casual sex

7.3.4. Vast increase in STIs diagnosed, doubled in last decade

7.3.5. "Therefore a man leaves his father and his mother and cleaves to his wife, and they become one flesh" (Genesis 2:24)

7.3.6. "Sexuality, by means of which man and woman give themselves to one another through the acts which are proper and exclusive to spouses" (CCC 2361)

7.3.7. Solution: experience gift of sex with loving committed partner after marriage

7.4. Pornography

7.4.1. Immoral sexual ideology

7.4.2. "One of the great ironies in our society is that we celebrate freedom and then limit the parts of life where we should be most free" (Hugh Hefner)

7.4.3. TOB 'Ethos of Seeing' highlights responsibility of viewers to see humans with dignity

7.4.4. "Perverts the conjugal act" (CCC 2354)

7.4.5. Removes intimacy from partners, produced for audiences pleasure

7.4.6. Solution: living chaste, and avoiding situations that may lead to temptation of pornography. Develop self control, free from sexual temptations, achieve authentic freedom

8. Catholicism in Society

8.1. Introducing Morals

8.1.1. Ten Commandments

8.1.2. Catechism of the Catholic Church

8.1.3. Encyclicals

8.2. Charity / Foreign Aid

8.2.1. Caritas

8.2.2. St Vincent de Pauls

8.3. Education & Health

8.3.1. Edmund Rice Education Australia

8.3.2. Sisters of Mercy

8.3.3. St John of God Hospital

9. Nazi's & Catholicism

9.1. Interplay

9.1.1. Adolf raised Catholic, turned to hate it

9.1.2. Persecuted Jews, gaining unfavourable reputation with Catholic Church

9.1.3. Catholic clergy and lay leaders often arrested and intimidated to quiet them

9.1.4. "Increasing harassment of Catholic clergy" (Robert Ventresca)

9.1.5. Formed laws that restricted missionaries from receiving funding

9.1.6. Reich Concordat issued 1933, a treaty attempting to resolve issues between Germany and the Church

9.1.7. Hitler had a "blatant disregard" for Concordat, utilising it to suppress the Catholic Church (Paul O'Shea)

9.1.8. Pope Pius XI issued Mit Brennender Sorge 1937, outlining endless violations of Concordat

9.1.8.1. Gestapo attempted to prevent distribution by shutting down church gatherings but thousands of copies circulated

9.1.8.2. Nazi's claimed Church properties and threatened clergy in response

9.1.9. Summi Pontificatus issued 1939, encyclical condemning war, racism, antisemitism and Church persecution

9.1.10. Euthanasia Campaign begun, ridding society of "racially unfit" 1939

9.1.11. Mystici Corporis Christi issued 1943, encyclical addressing immorality of killing the disabled

9.1.12. Pope Pius XII discreetly aided over 700,000 Jews to safety according to Rabbi Lapide

9.2. Human Dignity

9.2.1. "God created humankind in his image" (Genesis 1:27)

9.2.2. "The dignity of the human person is rooted in his / her creation in the image and likeness of God" (CCC 1700)

9.3. Solidarity

9.3.1. "From one ancestor he made all nations to inhabit the whole earth" (Acts 17:26)

9.4. Peace

9.4.1. "All war is accompanied by evil and injustice and so the Church urges everyone to pray and act so that we may be freed from the bondage of war" (CCC 2307)

9.4.2. "By reasoning, patience and dialogue... it is possible to identify and travel the paths of understanding and peace" (PJPII 1990)

10. Eugenics

10.1. Introduction

10.1.1. Study manipulating / controlling reproduction to improve offspring

10.1.2. Francis Galton coined term 1883

10.1.3. Belief 'proper evolution' thwarted by charities and welfare

10.1.4. "Church does not impose but freely proposes the Catholic faith" (Pope Benedict 2008)

10.2. Origins

10.2.1. Rose in popularity "The Origin of Species"

10.2.2. Intellectual elites and government decide to form groups 'fit to live' 'unfit to live'

10.2.3. Thomas Malthus indicated 'population explosion', create need for eugenics

10.2.4. Catholic Church strong disagreement from beginning, believed fueled by "ethnic, racial and class prejudices"

10.2.5. Argued state could not "violate the bodily integrity of an innocent individual"

10.2.6. Lobbied legislative initiatives promoting social justice, highly successful in Ohio and Alabama

10.2.7. "God created man in His own image" (Genesis 1:27)

10.3. Nazi Eugenics

10.3.1. Hitler strong advocate for implementation of eugenics in society

10.3.2. Instigated Social Darwinism, taking lives of millions Jews deemed unfit to reproduce

10.3.3. Deaths of 'unfit' took place in concentration camps, unethically tortured and murdered

10.3.4. Eugenics widely accepted by governments

10.3.5. Church released Casti Connubii written by Pope Pius XI 1930, addressing marriage, procreation, forbidding birth control, abortifacients

10.3.6. Condemned forcible sterilisation, directly attacking US States and Nazi Germany

10.3.7. "Evil is not to be done that good may come of it" (Casti Connubii 66)

10.4. Modern Eugenics

10.4.1. Completely false that eugenics has come to an end

10.4.2. Lives on under different names: birth control, designer babies, abortion, euthanasia

10.4.3. Margaret Sanger, strong eugenics activist formed Planned Parenthood, organisation promoting birth control and abortions

10.4.4. Same ideals within eugenics present today, including disregard of human life and prevention of natural birth

10.4.5. "No one can under any circumstance claim for himself the right to destroy an innocent human being" (CCC 2258)