Five Orientations to Learning

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Five Orientations to Learning by Mind Map: Five Orientations to Learning

1. Behaviorism

1.1. Learning is a change in observable behavior caused by external stimuli in the environment.​

1.1.1. Learning takes place in the presence of a stimulus.

1.1.2. Behavior that is positively reinforced will reoccur; intermittent reinforcement is particularly effective.

1.2. TPI Perspective - Transmission

1.3. Important Learning Theorists: Skinner, Guthrie, Hull, Thorndike, Tolman

2. Cognitivism

2.1. Learning is an internal process that depends on the learner’s capacity, motivation and determination​

2.1.1. Different instruction is required for different learning outcomes.

2.1.2. Instruction must be concerned with the experiences and contexts that make the student willing and able to learn.

2.1.3. Instruction must be structured so that it can be easily grasped by the student

2.1.4. Instruction should be designed to facilitate extrapolation and or fill in the gaps

2.2. TPI Perspective - Social reform, Developmental

2.3. Important Learning Theorists: Piaget, Gagne, Bruner

3. Constructivism

3.1. Learners take an active role in constructing their own understanding rather than receiving it from someone who knows.​

3.1.1. Instructional materials should attempt to integrate new material with previously presented information through comparisons and cross-referencing of new and old ideas.

3.1.2. The most general ideas of a subject should be presented first and then progressively differentiated in terms of detail and specificity.

3.2. TPI Perspective - Social reform, Developmental

3.3. Important Learning Theorists: Bruner, Lave, Piaget, Ausubel, Vygotsky​

4. Humanism

4.1. Learning is a personal act to fulfill potential.

4.1.1. Significant learning takes place when the subject matter is relevant to the personal interests of the student

4.1.2. Self-initiated learning is the most lasting and pervasive.

4.2. TPI Perspective - Nurturing

4.3. Important Learning Theorists: Maslow, Rogers

5. Social Learning

5.1. Learning is a shared process which takes place through observing, working together and being part of a larger group,

5.1.1. People can learn by observing the behavior is others and the outcomes of those behaviors.

5.1.2. Modeling teaches new behaviors.

5.1.3. People are more likely to engage in certain behaviors when they believe they are capable of executing those behaviors successfully.

5.2. TPI Perspective - Apprenticeship

5.3. Important Learning Theorists: Bandura, Vygotsky​