Human biology

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Human biology by Mind Map: Human biology

1. New Topic

2. Multipotent

2.1. Can develop into more than one cell type, but are more limited than pluripotent cells

3. Enzymes

3.1. Proteins that allow chemical reactions to take place at normal body temperature

3.2. Without enzymes these reactions would be too slow to be of any use to the body

3.3. Are specific

3.3.1. Each enzyme will combine with only one particular substrate

3.3.1.1. Occurs because enzyme and substrate have characteristics that are complimentary to one another - have shape and structure that allows them to fit together

4. Congenital disorders

4.1. Are defects or diseases that are present at birth

4.2. Are caused by mutations or a child inherits a defective gene from parents

4.3. Also caused by teratogens. An agent that causes physical defects in a developing foetus

4.3.1. Potential teratogens include antibiotics, LSD, alcohol, nicotine

4.4. The placenta allows many dangerous organisms and chemicals to pass from the mother to the foetus

4.4.1. Eg, viruses

5. Genetic diseases

5.1. Sickle cell anemia

5.1.1. Co dominant

5.2. Tay-sachs disease

5.2.1. Autosomal recessive

5.3. ABO blood groups

5.3.1. Co dominat

5.4. Red/green colourblindness

5.4.1. X-linked recessive

5.5. Haemophilia

5.5.1. X-linked recessive

5.6. Cystic fibrosis

5.6.1. Recessive

6. Genetic counseling

6.1. The examination of the incidence of a disorder in the family tree, where the probability that a particular problem will occur can sometimes be determined.

6.1.1. The couple can then decide whether to risk having a baby with the inherited disorder

7. DNA

7.1. DNA profile

7.1.1. The pattern of bonds revealed by the process of electrophoresis

7.1.1.1. Used to compare patterns in their genome or to identify individual’s traits

7.1.2. Ethics: ownership, best interest, discrimination

7.1.3. A sample of DNA is cut at particular base sequences and placed on a bed of gel

7.2. Deoxyribonucleic acid

7.2.1. A molecule found in the cells of all organisms

7.3. Contain the genetic information that determine the structure of the cell and the way it functions

8. Red blood cells

8.1. Are well suited to their function of oxygen transport because they:

8.1.1. Contain haemoglobin, which is able to combine with oxygen

8.1.2. Have no nucleus, so there is more room for haemoglobin molecules

8.1.3. Are shaped like biconcave discs which increases surface area for oxygen

9. Nutrients and waste

9.1. Transported dissolved in the blood plasma

9.1.1. Nutrients are the essential elements and molecules that are obtained from the food we eat

9.1.2. Wastes are substances produced by the cells that can’t be used and would be harmful if allowed to accumulate

10. Blood vessels that are joined together to form channels through which the blood flows are

10.1. Arteries

10.1.1. Carry blood away from heart

10.2. Capillaries

10.2.1. Carry blood between the cells

10.3. Veins

10.3.1. Carry blood back to the heart

10.3.2. New Topic

11. Cardiac cycle

11.1. The sequence of events that occurs in one complete beat of the heart

11.1.1. Pumping phase

11.1.1.1. When the heart muscle contracts (systole)

11.1.2. Filling phase

11.1.2.1. The heart muscle relaxes (diastole)

11.1.3. Atrial systole

11.1.3.1. Contraction of the atria

12. Mitochondrial DNA

12.1. Inherited from mother

12.1.1. Autosomal

12.2. Affects fatty acid oxidation and transporters

13. Variation

13.1. Difference in phenotypes between members of a species eg, skin colour, eye colour, height

13.2. Happens due to

13.2.1. Meiosis

13.2.1.1. Random assortment

13.2.1.1.1. Chromosomes split and end up in different gametes

13.2.1.2. Crossing over

13.2.1.2.1. Alleles switch so we get a different order of the genes

13.2.1.3. Non-disjunction

13.2.1.3.1. Wrong number of chromosomes in gametes (1 more or 1 less)

13.2.2. Random fertilisation

13.2.2.1. At fertilisation, there is no way of determining which sperm will unite with the egg

13.2.3. Epigenetics

13.2.3.1. Inherited characteristics that are not actually encoded in the DNA sequence itself

13.2.3.1.1. Passed on from one generation to the next

14. Stem cells

14.1. Totipotent

14.1.1. Have the ability to potentially develop into any cells in the human body

14.2. Pluripotent

14.2.1. Capable of giving rise to most, but not all, tissues of an organism

15. Structural organisation in human body b

15.1. The cell

15.2. Tissues

15.2.1. Epthelial tissue

15.2.1.1. Lining tissue

15.2.1.2. Eg-outer layer of skin

15.2.2. Connective tissue

15.2.2.1. Provides support for the bodys

15.2.2.2. Eg- bone and cartilage

15.2.3. Muscular tissue

15.2.3.1. Able to respond to a stimulus by contracting and becoming shorter

15.2.3.2. Skeletal, involuntary, cardiac

15.2.4. Nervous tissue

15.2.4.1. Made up of specialised nerve cells (neurons)

15.2.4.2. Eg- brain, spinal cord, nerves

15.3. Organs

15.4. System

16. Metabolism

16.1. All chemical reactions occurring in a living organism

16.2. 2 types of chemical reactions

16.2.1. Catabolism

16.2.1.1. Reactions in which large molecules are broken down to smaller ones

16.2.1.2. Releases energy

16.2.2. Anabolism

16.2.2.1. Reactions in which small molecules are built up into larger molecules

16.2.2.2. Requires energy

17. Chemical equation for cellular respiration

17.1. Glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water + energy