Natural Sciences

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Natural Sciences by Mind Map: Natural Sciences

1. Scope & Application (Lily)

1.1. Forms

1.1.1. Biology

1.1.1.1. Quantitative

1.1.1.2. Qualitative

1.1.2. Chemistry

1.1.3. Physics

1.1.4. Geology, etc.

1.1.5. All of which encompass most of the natural world

1.2. Aims

1.2.1. Using empirical evidence, observation and experimentation

1.2.1.1. To describe natural phenomena

1.2.1.2. To predict natural phenomena

1.2.1.3. To understand natural phenomena

1.2.1.4. To produce generalised about the real world

1.2.1.4.1. Statements

1.2.1.4.2. Principles

1.2.1.4.3. Scientific laws

1.3. A process

1.3.1. Questioning and critically analysing views and practices

1.3.1.1. Testing

1.3.1.2. Rejecting/ revising

1.3.2. Durable and self-correcting

1.3.2.1. Validity

1.3.2.1.1. Repeatability

1.3.2.2. Quality control

1.4. Shared knowledge

1.4.1. Peer review

1.4.1.1. Large groups of people from all over the world

1.5. Reason and imagination

1.5.1. Imagination to come up with idea(s) to explore and look into

1.6. Impacted by to change the practice and direction

1.6.1. Historical influences

1.6.2. Cultural influences

1.6.3. Social influences

1.7. Reductionism

1.7.1. Describing and analysing theory and phenomenon in terms of the fundamental or basic parts

1.7.1.1. People keep trying to focus theories to fewer more basic terms, thinking all of science is based at underlying foundations

2. Language & Concepts (Gaurika)

2.1. Conventions

2.1.1. A type of arbitrary agreement

2.1.2. Used for presenting shared knowledge

2.1.3. System of units (SI)

2.1.3.1. dimensionally independant

2.1.3.2. not static, evolves with time

2.1.3.3. consists of 7 well-defined units

2.2. Models and Metaphors

2.2.1. solves problems

2.2.2. used for making predictions

2.2.3. representation of reality

2.2.3.1. Through the use of analogies

2.2.4. can constrain scientific reasoning

2.2.5. helps to contextualise abstract ideas

2.2.6. will inevitably be somewhat inaccurate

2.2.6.1. incongruities between target and source meanings are unavoidable

2.3. Examples of concepts

2.3.1. Physics

2.3.1.1. Causations

2.3.1.2. Energy

2.3.1.3. Charge

2.3.2. Visual Arts

2.3.2.1. Texture

2.3.2.2. Composition

2.3.2.3. Movement

2.4. Formal Language

2.4.1. Typically used in mathematics

2.4.2. Used in proofs

2.4.2.1. Very methodical and step-by-step

2.4.2.2. Use of simple diagrams

2.4.2.3. Equations are clearly stated

2.4.2.4. Direct conclusions and effects are drawn

2.4.3. Detailed explanations

3. Methodology (Sid)

3.1. Karl Popper

3.1.1. Everything false we discover is good because it leads us closer into finding out what is actually true

3.1.2. Look without preconceived notions is to look with a scientific eye

3.1.3. Observed theories of Einstein and Freud

3.1.3.1. Future (Einstein) v. Past (Freud) evidence

3.1.3.2. Noticed they used different methods

3.1.4. Pseudoscience v. Science

3.1.4.1. Popper considered psychology as pseudoscience

3.1.4.2. Science: disconfirms theories

3.1.4.3. Pseudoscience: confirms theories

3.1.4.3.1. It's easy to find confirmation if you are looking for it

3.1.5. Not all scientific achievement was made equal

3.2. Scientific Method

3.2.1. Uses a method in order to test and ask questions about reality

3.2.1.1. A way of thinking

3.2.2. 1. Inductive Method

3.2.2.1. Cyclic in nature

3.2.2.2. Observations: classify and observe

3.2.2.3. Hypothesis: assumptions

3.2.2.4. Collecting Data and looking at patterns

3.2.2.5. Does the hypothesis link to the data. Interpreting the data

3.2.2.6. Law: results confirm the hypothesis

3.2.2.7. Theory: explains laws

3.2.3. 2. Hypothetico-Deductive Method

3.2.3.1. Hypothesis

3.2.3.2. Experimenting: measurable, controllable, repeatable

3.2.3.3. Conformation of the hypothesis or falsification

3.3. Positivists v. Interpretivist

3.3.1. Positivist: Scientific methods, quantifiable, finding out the truth

3.3.2. Interpretivist: relies on past knowledge, social sciences, an extent of the truth

3.4. Accuracy v. Precision

3.4.1. accuracy = how close the values that you measure are to the expected value

3.4.1.1. can be improved by repeating tests

3.4.2. precision = how consistent are the results you obtain from the scientific method

3.4.2.1. can be improved with better equipment

3.4.3. development of new technology

4. Historical Development (Nina)

4.1. Development of Science

4.1.1. Thomas Kuhn- the Structure of Scientific Revolutions (Theories of paradigm shifts)

4.1.1.1. Science was just a progression of the build up on new ideas/knowledge

4.1.1.1.1. This idea was challenged by Kuhn

4.1.1.2. Scientific discovery is not linear but cyclical (dynamic evolution of science + environmental changes)

4.1.1.2.1. Normal

4.1.1.2.2. Extraordinary

4.1.2. Examples of shifts from normal to extraordinary science

4.1.2.1. Ice age

4.1.2.2. The Earth is round

4.1.2.2.1. The concept of a round Earth displaced earlier beliefs in a flat Earth

4.1.2.3. Neutrons, electrons and protons in atoms

4.1.2.4. Darwin's theory of evolution

4.1.3. Progression of Paradigms in Sciences

4.1.3.1. History of Atomic Model

4.1.3.1.1. Started with Democritus' atomic theorem: everything in the world is made of matter

4.1.3.1.2. Delved into different substances (metal, gases, etc.)

4.1.3.1.3. Explored studies involving radiation and cathode rays

4.1.3.1.4. Explored the atomic understandings

4.1.3.1.5. Establishment of quantum theories and electric fields

4.1.3.1.6. Erwin Schrödinger looked into movements of electrons in terms of wave mechanics instead of particles.

5. Personal Knowledge

5.1. Affected by a variety of different factors (Gaurika)

5.1.1. biography

5.1.2. memberships to other groups

5.1.3. religious beliefs

5.1.4. other people

5.1.4.1. teachers

5.1.4.2. friends

5.1.4.3. parents

5.2. Contributes to shared knowledge (Gaurika)

5.2.1. Must go through validation procedures

5.3. Significance (Gaurika)

5.3.1. Understanding of natural phenomena

5.3.2. Based on empirical evidence

5.3.3. Comparisons can be made with modern observations

5.4. Affected by (Lily)

5.4.1. Teachers

5.4.1.1. Allowed me to become interested in and be able to explore science

5.4.2. Parents/ family members

5.4.2.1. Some family members work in fields of science

5.4.2.2. Has allowed for an interest in science

5.4.2.3. Can be inspired by them

5.4.3. Friends

5.4.3.1. Learn from them

5.4.3.2. Be inspired by them

5.5. Responsibilities (Lily)

5.5.1. To carry on the interest in the (developing) world around us

5.5.2. To further delve deeper into learning on the topic

5.5.3. To stay involved

5.5.4. To make sure that we continue to find the truth in situations (Sid)

5.6. Affected by ones experiences (Sid)

5.6.1. Scientific knowledge and discoveries can be impacted by experiences that ou face

5.6.1.1. Familial experiences

5.6.1.2. Friendship experiences

5.6.1.3. Pets and animal interactions

5.6.1.4. Cultural experiences

5.6.1.5. Curiosity about certain issues: this could lead to the need of wanting to find out more

5.7. Influenced to (Nina)

5.7.1. Change in approach to handling situations

5.7.1.1. Not just passively accumulating experiences and lessons

5.7.1.1.1. Sometimes question ideas, create a new concept and adapt to it

5.7.2. To actively discover more

5.7.2.1. Consider how much you know or what you know at all & how much more there is to discover

5.8. Influenced by (Nina)

5.8.1. Education (Science teachers)

5.8.1.1. Have a basic understand of where these theories are derived from

5.8.1.2. What we learn are not just facts, but learning the process of how these facts were formed

5.8.1.2.1. Through challenging/adding onto former concepts