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MEMORY by Mind Map: MEMORY

1. Storage

1.1. The process of maintaining or keeping information available

1.2. Rehearsal: the process of verbalizing, thinking about, or otherwise acting on or transforming information in order to keep it active in memory (two types)

1.2.1. Maintenance Rehearsal: repetition of information with little or no interpretation

1.2.2. Elaborative Rehearsal: involves repetition and analysis, in which the stimulus may be associated with (linked to) other information and further processed

2. Retrieval

2.1. the process by which store information is recovered from memory

2.2. Retention of information can be retrieve in several ways:

2.2.1. Recall: ability to remember information when asked

2.2.2. Recognition: ability to notice information when presented with options

2.2.3. Relearning: a measure of how long it takes to learn something you previously learned

3. State-dependant learning

3.1. the tendency to recall information learned in particular physiological state most accurately when one is again in that state

4. Inability to Retrieve: Forgetting

4.1. Common reasons for forgetting: decay or interference (yellow bubble)

4.2. Special reasons for forgetting: false memories or motivated forgetting (repression) (yellow bubble)

4.3. Medical reasons: amnesia (memory loss) (yellow bubble)

5. Decay

5.1. The loss of information from memory as a result of disuse and the passage of time

5.2. Our mind reconstructs memories as best as we can

6. Interference

6.1. the suppression of one bit of information by another received either earlier or later or the confusion of two pieces of information

7. False memory

7.1. Occasionally we repress memories that are traumatic

7.2. Other times we create memories that did not occur

8. Amnesia

8.1. The inability to remember information

8.2. Two main types:

8.2.1. Retrograde: loss of memory for events and experiences that occurred in a period of preceding the amnesia causing even

8.2.2. Anterograde: loss of memory for events occurring after event

9. Sensory Memory

9.1. The ability to retain sensory information after the original stimuli have ended

9.2. Sensory receptors;

9.2.1. sight, sound, smell, taste, and touch

10. Working Memory

10.1. The storage mechanism that temporarily holds current or recently attended to information for immediate or short-term use and is composed of several subsystems

11. Memory Span

11.1. the limited number of items a person can reproduce from memory

11.2. Information is either quickly forgotten or processed further in long-term memory

12. Consolidation

12.1. The process of changing in a short-term memory (working memory) into a long-term memory

13. Long-Term Memory

13.1. The storage mechanism that keeps a relatively permanent record

13.2. Two types;

13.2.1. Procedural Memory: unconscious once learned - memory for skills, including the perceptual, motor and cognitive skills required to complete complex task

13.2.2. Declarative Memory: memory for specific information (non-declarative memory: perform skills without recalling)

13.2.2.1. Episodic Memory: memory of specific personal events and situations (episodes), tagged with information about time Semantic Memory: memory of ideas, rules, words, and general concepts about the world

14. Implicit vs Explicit Memory

14.1. Explicit memory: conscious memory that a person is aware of

14.2. Implicit memory: a memory a person is not aware of possessing; considering an almost unconscious process, implicit memory occurs almost automatically

15. Ways to enhance memory

15.1. Chunking: grouping items to remember them in chunks

15.2. Acrostics and acronyms

15.3. Graphic organizers