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Memory by Mind Map: Memory

1. Persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information

2. Evidence of memory:

2.1. Recalling information

2.2. Recognizing it

2.3. Relearning it more easily on a later attempt


3.1. Ebbinghaus found that the more times he practiced a list of nonsense syllables on day 1, the less time he required to relearn it on day 2. Speed of relearning is one measure of memory retention (From Baddeley, 1982.)

4. Three processing stages in the Atkinson-Shiffrin model

4.1. We first record to-be-remembered information as a fleeting sensory memory

4.2. From there, we process information into short-term memory, where we encode it through rehearsal

4.3. Finally, information moves into long-term memory for later retrieval.

5. Atkinson-Shiffrin model updated concepts

5.1. Working memory, to stress the active processing occurring in the second memory stage

5.2. Automatic processing, to address the processing of information outside of conscious awareness

6. Working memory

6.1. Involves newer understanding of short-term memory

6.2. Focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory

6.3. Is handled by a central executive (Baddeley, 2002)

7. Effortful Versus Automatic Processing

7.1. Explicit memories (declarative memories) of conscious facts and experiences encoded through conscious, effortful processing

7.2. Implicit memories (nondeclarative memories) that form through automatic processes and bypass conscious encoding track

8. Sensory memory

8.1. First stage in forming explicit memories Immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

9. Short-term memory

9.1. Activated memory that holds a few items briefly (such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing) before the information is stored or forgotten

10. Effortful Processing Strategies

10.1. Chunking

10.2. Mnemonics

10.3. Hierarchies

10.4. Spacing effect

11. Memory Retrieval Cues

11.1. Priming

11.1.1. Activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

11.2. Context-dependent memory

11.2.1. Involves improved recall of specific information when the context present at encoding and retrieval are the same

11.3. State-dependent memory

11.3.1. Involves tendency to recall events consistent with current good or bad mood (mood-congruent memory)

11.4. Serial position effect

11.4.1. Involves tendency to recall best the last (recency effect) and first (primacy effect) items in a list

12. Forgetting causes

12.1. Encoding failure

12.2. Storage decay

12.3. Retrieval failure

12.4. Interference

12.5. Motivated forgetting