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Memory by Mind Map: Memory

1. Persistence of learning over time through the encoding, storage, and retrieval of information

2. Atkinson-Shiffrin model updated concepts

2.1. Working memory, to stress the active processing occurring in the second memory stage

2.2. Automatic processing, to address the processing of information outside of conscious awareness

3. Sensory memory

3.1. First stage in forming explicit memories Immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

4. Short-term memory

4.1. Activated memory that holds a few items briefly (such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing) before the information is stored or forgotten

5. Effortful Processing Strategies

5.1. Chunking

5.2. Mnemonics

5.3. Hierarchies

5.4. Spacing effect

6. Memory Retrieval Cues

6.1. Priming

6.1.1. Activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

6.2. Context-dependent memory

6.2.1. Involves improved recall of specific information when the context present at encoding and retrieval are the same

6.3. State-dependent memory

6.3.1. Involves tendency to recall events consistent with current good or bad mood (mood-congruent memory)

6.4. Serial position effect

6.4.1. Involves tendency to recall best the last (recency effect) and first (primacy effect) items in a list

7. Forgetting causes

7.1. Encoding failure

7.2. Storage decay

7.3. Retrieval failure

7.4. Interference

7.5. Motivated forgetting

8. Evidence of memory:

8.1. Recalling information

8.2. Recognizing it

8.3. Relearning it more easily on a later attempt


9.1. Ebbinghaus found that the more times he practiced a list of nonsense syllables on day 1, the less time he required to relearn it on day 2. Speed of relearning is one measure of memory retention (From Baddeley, 1982.)

10. Three processing stages in the Atkinson-Shiffrin model

10.1. We first record to-be-remembered information as a fleeting sensory memory

10.2. From there, we process information into short-term memory, where we encode it through rehearsal

10.3. Finally, information moves into long-term memory for later retrieval.

11. Working memory

11.1. Involves newer understanding of short-term memory

11.2. Focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory

11.3. Is handled by a central executive (Baddeley, 2002)

12. Effortful Versus Automatic Processing

12.1. Explicit memories (declarative memories) of conscious facts and experiences encoded through conscious, effortful processing

12.2. Implicit memories (nondeclarative memories) that form through automatic processes and bypass conscious encoding track