Esophageal Cancer

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Esophageal Cancer by Mind Map: Esophageal Cancer

1. Pathophysiologic Etiology

1.1. Adenocarcinoma

1.1.1. Originates in the cells of mucus-secreting glands in the esophagus.

1.1.2. Occurs through progressive accumulation of multiple genetic abnormalities such as mutational inactivation of p16, and p53 genes, cell cycle abnormalities and aneuploidy

1.1.3. Occurs most often in the lower portion of the esophagus.

1.1.4. The most common form of esophageal cancer in the United States.

1.1.5. Affects primarily white men.

1.2. Squamous Cell Carcinoma

1.2.1. Originates in the squamous cells that line the surface of the esophagus.

1.2.2. Occurs most often in the upper and middle portions of the esophagus

1.2.3. The most prevalent form of esophageal cancer worldwide.

1.3. Other rarer types of cancer

1.3.1. Small cell carcinoma

1.3.2. Choriocarcinoma

1.3.3. Lymphoma

2. Causative Factors

2.1. Chronic Alcohol Abuse

2.2. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

2.3. Chronic inflammation

2.4. Esophageal squamous dysplasia

2.5. Smoking

3. Risk Factors

3.1. Alcoholism

3.1.1. Midterm

3.2. Tobacco Use

3.3. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

3.4. Obesity

3.5. Radiation Exposure

3.6. Achalasia/A difficulty moving food through the esophagus and into the stomach

3.7. Poor diet

3.8. Age

3.9. Male

3.10. Human papilloma virus infection

3.11. Workplace chemical exposure

3.12. Plummer-Vinson syndrome

4. Diagnostic Tests

4.1. Computerized tomography

4.2. Endoscopy

4.3. Biopsy

4.4. Histopathology

4.5. Positron emission tomography

5. Common Findings

5.1. Dysphagia/Difficulty Swallowing

5.1.1. New vocabulary

5.2. Chest pain, pressure or burning

5.3. Weight loss

5.4. Indigestion or Heartburn

5.5. Coughing or Hoarseness

6. Treatments

6.1. Surgery

6.1.1. Tumor removal

6.1.2. Esophagogastrectomy

6.1.3. Esophagectomy

6.2. Chemotherapy

6.3. Radiation Therapy

6.4. Esophageal stent

6.5. CagA-positive strain of H. pylori

7. Inflammation

7.1. Alcohol increases inflammatory process of tobacco by acting as a solvent for the carcinogenic chemicals in smoke products

7.2. Barrett esophagus

7.2.1. Chronic inflammation caused by gastroesophageal reflux.

7.2.2. Columnar metaplasia that replaces the stratified squamous epithelium of the distal esophagus

7.2.3. Mutation of the TP53 gene

7.3. Repeated thermal injuries related to food and drink triggers inflammatory process

7.4. Cytokines, chemokines and other inflammatory factors affect intercellular signaling pathways increasing the likelihood of mutant phenotypes