Anatomy Semester 1

Created by Hailey Mattthews and Cesar Duarte

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Anatomy Semester 1 by Mind Map: Anatomy Semester 1

1. Unit 5: Skeletal System: For this unit we learned about the different bones in the body and their main functions. There was the axial and appendicular skeleton that shows the two different views of the skeletal system. We also learned the formation of the bones and how they are formed.

1.1. Axial skeleton

1.1.1. skull

1.1.1.1. cranium: encloses and protects brain tissue

1.1.1.1.1. frontal: forehead

1.1.1.1.2. parietal: sides of cranium

1.1.1.1.3. temporal: lateral parts of skull

1.1.1.1.4. occipital: most posterior bone

1.1.1.2. facial bone: holds eyes in position

1.1.1.2.1. maxilla: fuse and form the upper jaw

1.1.1.2.2. zygomatic bones: cheekbones

1.1.1.2.3. nasal: bridge of nose

1.1.1.2.4. mandible: lower jaws

1.1.2. hyoid bone: only bone not connecting to any other bone

1.1.3. vertebral column: extends from skull to pelvis (protects spinal cord/26 bones)

1.1.3.1. inter-vertebral discs: separate vertebra

1.1.3.2. body: weight-bearing part

1.1.3.3. vertebral foramen: spinal cord passes

1.1.4. thorax: protects lungs, heart, and blood vessels

1.1.4.1. sternum: attached to 7 ribs

1.1.4.2. ribs: 12 pairs

1.2. Appendicular skeleton

1.2.1. pectoral girdle

1.2.1.1. clavicle=collarbone

1.2.1.2. scapula=shoulder blade

1.2.2. upper limbs

1.2.2.1. arms

1.2.2.1.1. humerous

1.2.2.1.2. radius

1.2.2.1.3. ulna

1.2.2.2. hand

1.2.2.2.1. carpals: wrists

1.2.2.2.2. metacarpals:palm

1.2.2.2.3. phalanges: fingers

1.2.3. pelvic girdle: hips bones

1.2.3.1. llium

1.2.3.2. ischium

1.2.3.3. pubis

1.2.4. lower limbs

1.2.4.1. leg

1.2.4.1.1. tibia: shin

1.2.4.1.2. femur: thigh bone

1.2.4.1.3. fibula

1.2.4.1.4. patella: kneecap

1.2.4.2. foot: support weight, allow to walk

1.2.4.2.1. tarsals

1.2.4.2.2. metatarsals

1.2.4.2.3. phalanges

1.3. Skeletal system: provides points of attachment for muscles and tissues

1.3.1. Types of bones

1.3.1.1. long (femjur and humerus)

1.3.1.2. short (wrist and ankle)

1.3.1.3. flat (skull and sternum)

1.3.1.4. irregular (vertebrae)

2. Unit 4: Integumentary System: In this unit we learned about the body's membranes and systems that are used in everyday life. The integumentary system in our skin and the layers that protect our body as a covering. We learned all the specific layers of the skin and how they help maintain balance in the body.

2.1. Body Membranes

2.1.1. Connective- soft areolar connective tissue

2.1.1.1. synovial membrane- line joints

2.1.2. Epithelial-

2.1.2.1. Cutaneous

2.1.2.1.1. epidermis

2.1.2.1.2. dermis

2.1.2.2. Mucous

2.1.2.3. Serous

2.1.2.3.1. parietal layer

2.1.2.3.2. visceral layer

2.1.2.3.3. serous fluid

2.1.2.3.4. peritoneum

2.1.2.3.5. pleura

2.1.2.3.6. pericardium

2.2. Integumaentary System- "covering"

2.2.1. 1. Protection

2.2.1.1. mechanical

2.2.1.2. chemical

2.2.1.3. bacterial

2.2.1.4. UV

2.2.1.5. thermal

2.2.1.6. desiccation

2.2.2. 2. Heat Regulation

2.2.2.1. sweating

2.2.3. 3. Excretion of Waste

2.2.4. 4. Synthesizes vitamin D

2.2.4.1. mineral absorption

2.2.4.2. immune system

2.2.4.3. depression connections

2.3. Structure of Skin

2.3.1. 1. Epidermis

2.3.1.1. Skin appendages arise to maintain homeostasis

2.3.1.1.1. 1. Cutaneous Glands

2.3.2. 2. Dermis

2.3.3. 3. Hypodermis(subcutaneous tissue)

2.4. Homeostatic Imbalance

2.4.1. Skin colors

2.4.2. Skin tears

2.4.3. Autoimmune diseases

2.4.4. Infection/Allergies

2.4.5. Burns

2.4.6. Skin Cancer

3. Unit 6: Joints and Articulations: In this last unit we learned learned about all of the different functions and classifications of joints. There are different structural and functional aspects to a joint, and each has a specific purpose. Each allow different levels of motion and allow the body to move across different planes.

3.1. Joints: allow articulations of the bones and muscles and are classified by...

3.1.1. Structural: classified by the structure

3.1.1.1. fibrous: united by fibrous connective tissue (skull sutures, radius/ulna, teeth)

3.1.1.2. cartilaginous: joined by cartilage (vertebra)

3.1.1.3. synovial: not directly connected but joined by fluid (shoulder, elbow, ankle)

3.1.1.3.1. plane: surfaces are flat, allow sliding or rotating motion

3.1.1.3.2. hinge: surfaces fit into a concave of other bone (ex. elbow, knee)

3.1.1.3.3. pivot: cylindrical surface of bone fits into ring of other surface (neck)

3.1.1.3.4. cyndyloid: oval surface fits into depression of other bone (phalanges)

3.1.1.3.5. saddle: forms between two concave and convex areas (thumb)

3.1.1.3.6. ball and socket: ball fits into a concave shape of the other surface (hip, shoulder)

3.1.2. Functional: focused on motion

3.1.2.1. Synarthrosis: immobile, connect protective bones, usually a fibrous joint (ex. skull sutures)

3.1.2.2. Amphiarthrosis: limited movement, usually a cartilaginous (ex. vertebra)

3.1.2.3. Diarthrosis: freely mobile, are synovial joints

3.1.2.3.1. uniaxial: single plane movement

3.1.2.3.2. biaxial: two plane movement

3.1.2.3.3. multiaxial: several plane movement

3.1.3. Motion: the classification of the movements that different joints make

3.1.3.1. Flexion/Extension: bending and straightening motion of the joints and bones

3.1.3.2. Rotation/Circumduction: the articulation of one bone around an axis (shaking head) and the movement of distal end making a circle around proximal end (arm circles)

3.1.3.3. Abduction/Adduction: moving distal part of body away from midline-moving distal end towards the midline

3.1.3.4. Supination/Pronation: rotate body outward or place weight on the outside/ rotate body inward and place weight on the inside

4. Unit 1 Introduction: For this unit we were introduced to the basic meaning of anatomy and physiology. We learned the different levels of organization and the structural classification of the body. Lastly we learned the organ systems of the body and how to classify them by the organs and tissues within them.

4.1. anatomy- study of structure and shape of body

4.1.1. gross

4.1.2. microscopic

4.2. physiology- study of body and how it functions

4.3. structural organization- the different complexity of the body systems and layers

4.3.1. 1. atoms

4.3.2. 2. cells

4.3.3. 3. tissues

4.3.4. 4. organs

4.3.5. 5. organ systems

4.3.5.1. Integumentary- skin

4.3.5.2. Skeletal- supports organs and provides framework for body

4.3.5.3. Muscular- allows manipulation

4.3.5.4. Nervous- control system of body

4.3.5.5. Endocrine- secrete hormones

4.3.5.6. Cardiovascular- blood vessels transport blood

4.3.5.7. Lymphatic- returns fluid to blood

4.3.5.8. Respiratory- supplies blood with oxygen

4.3.5.9. Digestive- breaks down food

4.3.5.10. Urinary- eliminates wasts

4.3.5.11. Reproductive- produce offspring

4.3.6. 6. organisms

4.4. Necessary Life Functions- all of the things that our body and its systems need to survive

4.4.1. Maintaining Boundaries

4.4.2. Movement

4.4.3. Responsiveness

4.4.4. Digestion

4.4.5. Metabolism

4.4.6. Excretion

4.4.7. Reproduction

4.4.8. Growth

5. Unit 3 Cells and Tissue: Within this unit we were introduced to the different classifications of cells. Which then lead into the types of tissues that are found all throughout the body. We then learnt how to classify the cells and tissues by their appearance and their function.

5.1. Cells: The smallest unit of life

5.2. Tissues: Any of the distinct types of material of which animals or plants are made, consisting of specialized cells and their products.

5.2.1. Epithelial Tissue

5.2.1.1. simple

5.2.1.1.1. Squamous

5.2.1.1.2. Cuboidal

5.2.1.1.3. Columnar

5.2.1.1.4. Pseudostratified

5.2.1.2. stratified

5.2.1.2.1. Squamous

5.2.1.2.2. Cuboidal

5.2.1.2.3. Coumnar

5.2.1.2.4. Transitional

5.2.1.3. Glandular Epithelium

5.2.1.3.1. Gland: Group of cells that make and secrete a product

5.2.2. Connective Tissues

5.2.2.1. Cartilage

5.2.2.1.1. Hyaline cartilage

5.2.2.1.2. Elastic Cartilage

5.2.2.1.3. Fibrocartilage

5.2.2.2. Dense connective tissue

5.2.2.3. Loose connective tissue

5.2.2.3.1. Areolar

5.2.2.3.2. Adipose

5.2.2.4. Reticular Connective tissue

5.2.3. Muscle Tissue

5.2.3.1. Skeletal muscle

5.2.3.2. cardiac muscle

5.2.3.3. Smooth muscle

5.2.4. Repair/ Regeneration of Tissue: Tissues repair/regenerate quickly

5.2.4.1. Cancer: Abnormal growth of body cells