Macbeth Themes

Get Started. It's Free
or sign up with your email address
Macbeth Themes by Mind Map: Macbeth Themes

1. Power

1.1. After the murder of Duncan, Macbeth starts to go mad. Lady Macbeth attempts to regain control my manipulating him again by attacking his weakness: "Infirm of purpose!". This make s Lady Macbeth appear to be stronger; however, Shakespeare conveys that that L.M. is not weighed down by the guilt, yet later in the play the remorse swallows her whole despite her flimsy mask of bravery

1.2. pall thee in the dunnest smoke of hell, that my keen knife see not the wound it makes, nor Heaven peep through the blanket of the dark to cry, 'Hold, hold.'" - Lady Macbeth - She calls upon the smoke of Hell to rise and cover the entire castle so their deed can remain covert and so that not even the power of Heaven can hold them back. - Further enhances the idea of the Macbeths' large egos and the power they feel they possess. - Use of the adjective "keen" suggests she has a complete lack of ambivalence (hesitation/uncertainty), again showing her as evil and power-hungry. - Use of the possessive pronoun "my" shows she feels she is capable and willing to do it. This contrasts with Act 2, Scene 2 in which we see signs of her wavering courage ("Had he not resembled my father as he slept, I had done't.").

1.3. After seeing Banquo's ghost in the banquet scene, Macbeth states: "For mine own good All causes shall give way" which is poignant and evokes pathos as Macbeth has chosen his own egotistical and evil path where even his wife, Lady Macbeth, will be pushed aside if it comes to his well being. Macbeth's blood lust is further reinforced when he says " I am in blood", referring to a metaphorical river, which he feels his is trapped in, as he feels becoming duplicitous, in order to conceal his deeds, is just as "tedious" as becoming wholly evil, and despot, murdering any potential opposition.

1.4. Before we meet Macbeth, he is introduced as "brave Macbeth" who fought in the war against Norway he "unseamed" the traitor "from the nave to th'chops". Shakespeare illustrates to the reader that Macbeth is very physically powerful and is capable of extreme brutality which foreshadows how Macbeth will act in the future.

1.5. After Macbeth visits the withes, it is indisputable that Macbeth feels very powerful, arguably immortal. This is implied through his nonchalance, as when he is told by the servant that the English army is outside the castle wanting his head, he replies " i cannot taint with fear". On the one hand suggests Macbeth feels all powerful, and that the witches' apparitions have given him indisputable courage "i'll fight till from my bones my flesh be hacked". However, it could be argued that Macbeth is in fact very weak, not only because of his ignorance that blinds him from the truth that the witches are trying to give him false courage, but also the because that he doesn't care about anything, not just the battle, but everything good he had is gone, as he says in his soliloquy that he has "fall'n into the sere" a "yellow leaf" which implies that he is haggard and mentally and emotionally drained, which arguable implies that he is at the epitome of weakness, as a human without anything to live for or enjoy.

1.6. "I have given suck and know how tender 'tis to love the babe that milks me: I would, while it was smiling in my face, have plucked my nipple from its boneless gums and dashed the brains out, had I so sworn as you have done to this" - Lady Macbeth - This horrific imagery shows how murderous, evil and unstable she is. - This perhaps suggests that she is of greater evil than Macbeth as she swears to murder, without the witches' manipulation yet Macbeth is reluctant. Shakespeare wants to convey how the witches prophecies and promises to power has corrupted the integrity of lady Macbeth

1.7. Lady Macbeth is presented as psychologically powerful as she is able to manipulate Macbeth into killing king Duncan to fulfill their ambition of ruling Scotland: "When you durst do it, then you were a man". She challenges Macbeth's masculinity which provokes him to doing her bidding which shows her influence over Macbeth as a strong female character.

1.7.1. "I fear thy nature, it is too full o'th'milk of human kindness to catch the nearest way" - Lady Macbeth - This shows that Lady Macbeth has a seemingly weak perception of Macbeth. In juxtaposition to the respect Macbeth shows for his wife, this shows Lady Macbeth to be domineering and overpowering.

1.8. "unsex me here" - Lady Macbeth - She asks for the "spirits" to remove her of her femininity: "take my milk for gall". This suggests toward a rejection of her expected demure and caring, motherly, submissive qualities. She wishes to be more powerful, ruthless and without remorse like a man who would be stereotypically expected to be in Jacobean Times.

1.9. After Lady Macbeth is queen, in self reflection she recognises: "Nought's had, all's spent, where our desire is got without content." These phrases show how she has been tormented by this regret. - Use of the verb "spent" illustrates all her energy is depleted shows how she feels this torment is caused by self sabotage. - Rhyming couplets give a gloomy undertone and show how depression may be developing.

1.10. Perhaps one of the most prominent instances of the loss of power in "Macbeth", is when Lady Macbeth commits suicide: "by self and violent hands took off her life"Perhaps the insignificance of Lady Macbeth's suicide implies that she was never happy, and her lust for power, ironically made her weaker. Furthermore Lady Macbeth dies offstage, perhaps Shakespeare incorporates this to keep sympathy for Macbeth, and to fulfill his arc as a tragic hero; however, on the other hand, it further implies Lady Macbeth's deterioration into almost nothing, only a minor character who is so unimportant, that she doesn't even die offstage. This is reinforced by her short soliloquy "nought's had, all's spent, where our desire is got without content", it's short simplicity highlights that Lady Macbeth is aware of her inevitable demise, and I believe that Shakespeare uses such a anticlimactic death to display that rather than the happiness and satisfaction she believes becoming queen will give her, her greed and ambition lead her to a cycle of depression, which fully displays the theme that power corrupts all.

2. Ambition

2.1. Shakespeare presents ambition in "Macbeth" as an inherently destructive trait,in line with the religious beliefs of the Jacobean era; that Divine order, otherwise known as the great chain of being, was that God gave you your place on earth, and attempts or desires to transcend this status was a direct heresy against God. Thus, Shakespeare uses ambition as the hamartia of the central protagonists, and it is inarguably the source of their demise.

2.2. In Macbeth's soliloquy, he desires to "jump the life to come". The dynamic verb "jump" suggests a caving to leap forth, allowing unrestricted power; however, this becomes deeply ironic, as not only does Macbeth foreshadow his the downfall, where his "vaulting ambition" will "o'erleap itself", but he follows his own prediction, as ultimately, it does lead to his eventual downfall. The audience are inevitably relieved at the cessation of this despot, as Malcolm ends as the rightful king of Scotland, and natural order is restored. The verb "jump" could perhaps allude to Macbeth's intentions to 'cheat' his way through the hierarchy, not only through regicide, but by deceit; the framing of Duncan's sons to ensure is own unrightful coronation - as historically, the heir of the throne was chosen through the law of tanistry which opened access to the ambition, and often caused strife in families.

2.3. Secondally, Shakespeare uses ecclesiastical (religious) imagery to warn the audience to how dangerous Macbeth's ambition will become. the metaphor of the "poison'd chalice" is oxymoronic which generates a discordant tone, and would demonstrate - to a profoundly religious Jacobean audience - the cataclysmic effect of desecrating (treating a religious thing with disrespect" such a sacred object. This alludes to the widespread belief of divine order and regicide, which not only was high treason, but a betrayal of God. The image effectively demonstrates the catastrophic effect of such insatiable, unrestricted ambition can cause, foreshadowing the brutal murders Macbeth performs later on.

2.4. "What, quite unmanned in folly?" - Lady Macbeth - Lady Macbeth says that Macbeth's foolishness has taken away his manhood. Note!: This is the last scene in which the Macbeths appear on stage together. The distance between as ambition has driven them apart shows how their relationship has broken down as Macbeth has become more ruthless and Lady Macbeth is driven mad by guilt.

2.5. Macbeth contemplates whether or not to kill Duncan, before Lady Macbeth manipulates him into committing regicide (the most unholy and damned sin) he states: "I have no spur... only vaulting ambition which o'erleaps itself". The verb "fall" could perhaps allude to the biblical story of Satan, and through his lust for power, it leads to his downfall, and is kicked out of heaven till he falls into hell, damned for eternity. The biblical allusion would have been well known by a very religious Jacobean audience, so perhaps Shakespeare implies Macbeth is in fact not so different from Lucifer, which foreshadows his later demise.

2.6. After the Banquet scene, Macbeth states: " I will tomorrow ... to the Weyward Sisters". The unequivocal declarative verb:"will" suggests that there is no turning back for Macbeth, he is completely indulging himself in evil and he is abusing his authority. As in Jacobean times, any contact with a witch was criminal but what make it worse is Macbeth is doing it for his own egotistical thirst for power.

2.6.1. Shakespeare clearly wants to show that Macbeth is resolute in completing his murderous rampage and scare any opposition trying to dethrone him using fear in his tyrannical powers. He tells his wife "I am in blood stepped in so far that, should I wade no more". It shows Macbeth is trapped as he has gone too far that he is at the point of no return.

2.7. Macbeth becomes enraged when he hears Malcolm is the Prince of Cumberland through the law of tanistry - a custom in celtic tribes in Scotland in the 11th century - which means Malcolm was elected to become the next King. Macbeth's selfish arrogance still desires to be king and he states: " Stars, hide your fires; let not light see my black and deep desires". Since the witches prophesied that he would be king, his arrogance is slowly driving him to becoming a megalomaniac and he will even kill to get his way.

2.8. Lady Macbeth believes Macbeth is ambitious enough to gain power, but isn't endowed with the ruthlessness that is needed to secure it "thou art not without ambition, but without the illness that should attend it." Lady Macbeth believes Macbeth isn't capable to be king as he is "too full o'th milk of human kindness" which is strange because she is ambitious for Macbeth, but describes Virtues like kindness as obstacles, blocking his way; therefore, it is clear that shakespeare is trying to highlight L.M. Ambition for Macbeth but also that she sees the world for an augmented reality like the witches which suggests the witches may have supernatural control over her too and interlaces into the theme of appearance vs reality.

2.9. When Macbeth first hears the witches prophecies he states: "My thought, whose murder yet is but fantastical ".The witches evoked a deep embedded thirst for ambition within Macbeth; furthermore, he believes that murder is "fantastical" which illustrates the the audience that Macbeth's ambition leads him to aberrant paths, even murder to get what he desires.

2.10. Shakespeare presents Macbeth as ambitious in his soliloquy in which he contemplates murdering King Duncan. The soliloquy beings with a monosyllabic sentence "If it were done, when 'tis done", which emphasises his deliberation and rational thinking as he plots to murder Duncan, This could suggest he is cold-hearted and tenacious when he thinks about killing Duncan. Shakespeare puts stress on the "done" using iambic meter which on the one hand suggests Macbeth's eagerness to kill Duncan and gain power. On the other hand, it could display that his ambition is succeeded by his reluctance, as the iambic stress on done could imply it is stressful for him, and the caesura also suggests he wants is to be done quickly. Additionally, the half-rhyme of "surcease, success" generates juxtaposition , but through the para-rhype, it displays their interconnection and produces a discordant tone and reflects Macbeth's conflicted mind between morality and ambition.

2.11. Banquo’s secretive nature is conveyed in “Macbeth”, as he never tells the other nobles his suspicions, despite knowing Macbeth kills the king, as he was there when the witches told him his prophecy that he would become “king hereafter”, and even states in his soliloquy “I fear thou play’dst most foully for’t”. Perhaps Shakespeare creates this dramatic irony to build suspense and anticipation, perhaps he is just naïve and doesn’t really understand; however, I believe that Shakespeare incorporated Banquo’s subtle duplicity as a further display of how the supernatural and ambition corrupts. This is because he “shalt get kings” by the witches, and he even says in his soliloquy “set me up in hope?” which certainly could infer that he is ambitious himself, and he believes that Macbeth’s prophecies have to come true for his own success, which is why he acts naive and duplicitous to procure his own success. Despite this, I believe that Shakespeare employs this subtle hint of corruption very discretely, as contextually, Banquo was related to King James the first, and being Shakespeare’s patron, he didn’t want to upset him; however, despite this discreteness, I think it in fact further reinforces the motif that ambition corrupts and permeates into everyone, no matter their apparent nobleness. – father reinforced by his negotiations with Macbeth “some words upon that business”

3. Supernatural/Witchcraft

3.1. The witches speak in Trochaic tetrameter which signifies how they're different to any other characters; furthermore, this highlights to the audience that they're extraterrestrial and have supernatural powers.

3.2. After Macbeth murders duncan, he believes he hears a voice cry: "Sleep no more! Macbeth does murther sleep". The personification of sleep being murdered makes makes it seem for scary for Macbeth like he'll never be able to sleep again which could be because of the witches punishing him or his pained conscience with the weight of murder impressed upon it.

3.2.1. Macbeth's ambition leads to guilt and his demise; in addition, the fact that he can't sleep could almost suggest that God is angry with him and is tormenting him for killing the king who was believed to have been chosen by God.

3.2.2. CONTEXT: In Jacobean times, people believed in the Great chain of being which was to do with spiritual nature with God at the top with the king below him, then men, then women and at the bottom rocks. To commit regicide (to kill a king) would've been the worse sin possible and would've disrupted the great chain of being which is why Macbeth "is being punished"by the supernatural.

3.3. When Banquo first sees the witches he is very shocked and confused: "That not look like th'inhabitants o'th'earth". The way he describes their look is like extraterrestrial beings which emphasises their unnatural aura which instantly highlights to a Jacobean audience who were very superstitious that they were evil witches.

3.4. CONTEXT: This would've particularly interested King James the I of England and VI of scotland who was obsessed with witches and even wrote a book on the called "daemonology" which wasd about how to spot a witch and how they should be dealt with. It was estimated that 4,400 witches in scotland were executed in the 17th century so it is obvious Shakespeare included the witches to delight King James I who was his patreon.

3.5. Shakespeare presents the witches in an ambiguous way "Supernatural soliciting" which would've thrilled the Jacobean audience who were terrified and mesmerized by the witches ungodly powers. A modern more cynical audience today isn't as interested as we have scientific knowledge to explain things like earthquakes; however, it is clear to see why he made the witches as ambiguous and evil as possible.

3.6. To open the play, the witches chant: "fair is foul and foul is fair" which suggests their immorality from the start as they believe foul play and evil is superior to integrity. Furthermore, when the audience first meets Macbeth, he ecos the words of the witches: "so fair and foul a day i have not scene". Shakespeare could be implying that the witches already have Macbeth under their influence which highlights theire supernatural powers; in addition the witches leads him into a downward spiral to his ultimate demise.

3.6.1. The witches do not force Macbeth into murdering all his opponents; however, they lead him into temptation "the instruments of darkness tell us truths, win us with honest trifles, to betray's in deepest consequence." Macbeth gets won over by the witches small fraction of truths which lead him to hunt for the others, therefore completing it himself, but leaving a bloodied trail behind him...

3.6.2. Before Macbeth goe to murder Duncan, he has an internal struggle where he starts to hallucinate: "Is this a dagger which I see before me, the handle towards my hand?" Shakespeare is suggesting to his audience that Macbeth's mind could be deteriorating from the weight on his conscience, or the effect of the supernatural are taking influence over him.

3.7. When Banquo's ghost appears on stage, Shakespeare illustrates that Macbeth has been driven into hysteria by his guilty conscience; however, a Jacobean audience could've interpreted this as the witches supernatural powers haunting Macbeth and further driving him into madness to do the Devil's bidding by delving into deeper depths of evil.

3.8. "raven" + "spirits" + "blood" + "gall" + "murd'ring" + "smoke of hell" + "knife" + "dark" + "cry" - Lady Macbeth - The semantic field of dark, evil and threatening images shows her as such and also, links her to the witches.

4. Gender

4.1. "Hie thee hither, that I may pour my spirits in thine ear and chastise with the valour of my tounge all that impedes thee from the golden round." - Lady Macbeth - Use of the word "spirits" links Lady Macbeth to the supernatural and thus the witches. This associates Lady Macbeth's nature with the manipulative methods of the witches. - Imperative verbs show her to be commanding Macbeth which is, again, a rarity in relationships of the time. - The phrase "chastise with the valour of my tounge" also suggests that she is braver and more ruthless than Macbeth and that she believes he needs her assisstance to be able to kill Duncan.

4.1.1. Power

4.1.2. Supernatural

4.2. Macbeth first lines to his wife in the play are: "My dearest partner of greatness". The superlive "dearest" highlights that Macbeth sees his wife as an equal if not better which was very juxtaposed to the 17th century doctrine where women were believed to be inferior.

4.3. CONTEXT: Clearly, gender is out of its traditional order. This disruption of gender roles is also presented through Lady Macbeth's usurpation of the dominant role in the Macbeth's marriage; on many occasions, she rules her husband and dictates his actions.

4.4. At the start of the play she defies the contemporary fear of witchcraft and calls on evil spirits to "unsex me here" and "take my milk for gall". On the one hand, Shakespeare’s use of imperatives highlight her strength and determination. On the other, they illustrate a desperation in the character. This need to change herself and remove the caring, maternal ‘milk’ may in fact foreshadow her inability to ‘stop up th’access and passage to remorse.’

4.5. Lady Macbeth is able to manipulate Macbeth using emasculation and putting fictionalising promises: "What... made you break this enterprise to me? When you durst do it, then you were a man". Shakespeare clearly wants to show that unlike most wonen in the Jacobean era, Lady Macbeth is not placid and maternal like most women, but fierce and powerful which is juxtaposed to the end of the play were the remorse inside her fills her with guilt till she deteriorates into weakness and depression.

5. Appearance vs reality

5.1. "I fear thy nature, it is too full o'th milk of human kindness to catch the nearest way", Lady Macbeth says that Macbeth is honourable and kind; however, similar to the witches, she believes that this is a weak character trait. She scorns his good qualities , as she knows it wont make him king, so invokes evil spirits "murdering ministers", to gain the cruelty she needs to gain power.

5.2. "honoured hostess" - Duncan - Duncan shows great kindness toward Lady Macbeth, making her intention to kill him all the more atrocious and highlights her deceptiveness to gain power .

5.3. At the very beginning of the play, the witches chant "fair is foul and foul is fair", this allues to their inherent evil nature, believed by a Jacobean audience. Witches were in fact so prominent, that James I - the king at the time - wrote a book called "daemonologie", which taught how to spot a witch, and how to stop their practices, and it even became a capitol offence in 1804, and over 4,400 supposed witches were killed in James the First's reign. Only 2 scenes later in act 1 scene 3, Macbeth proclaims to Banquo "so foul and fair a day i have not seen", Shakespeare perhaps echos the witches words in Macbeth's to suggest a connection, and it foreshadows that Macbeth demise will be caused by their deceit which further reflects the theme of appearance versus reality. Furthermore, Macbeth prior to the scene is described as "brave", and as "bellona's bridegroom", suggesting his brutality on the battlefield is seen as noble and masculin; however, the witches description is completely juxtaposed, looking "haggard" which suggests they're weak compared to Macbeth. However, they both defy their primary appearance throughout the play, as Macbeth becomes mentally and emotionally powerless, and the witches in fact have huge power, arguably being the influence of the death of the Macbeths Banquo and Duncan.

5.4. "Is this a dagger which I see before me, the handle toward my hand?" suggests that Macbeth is unsure about whether the dagger is actually there or not and the audience are unsure about whether the witches have created the hallucination or if Macbeth's state of mind has deteriorated to insanity.

5.5. Lady Macbeth tells Macbeth to "look like th'innocent flower but be the serpent under't". The phrase embodies the theme of duality like the biblical allusion of Adam and Eve where the devil disguised as the snake tricked them into eating the forbidden fruit which lead to unseen and terrible consequences. Furthermore, the recurring theme of deceit is undoubtedly displayed when Macbeth says "false face must hide what false heart doth know" which is right before he murders Duncan, which could perhaps suggest that Macbeth is already influenced why the witches moral "fair is foul and foul is fair", or that he is inherently evil, which could further be affirmed by his unwavering duplicitous nature, until the very end of the play.

5.6. This theme is established as a key theme at the very start of the play with the paradox "Fair is foul and foul is fair" suggesting that things are not what they seem to be .

5.6.1. "There's daggers in men's smiles"

5.7. After Duncan's dead body is found, Macbeth asks questions like "What's the matter?" and "What is't you say, the life?" and Lady Macbeth asks "What, in our house?" as they pretend to not know of Duncan's murder and pretend to be shocked and confused. Furthermore, she faints when Macbeth tells everybody why he killed the guards, perhaps she is appalled at her husband's cruel nature; however, it is most likely that she is trying to conceal their atrocious deed from the other nobles, by drawing attention away from Macbeth, who see thinks is exposing their deed, as she knows about Macbeth's crutal nature already, as he killed Duncan, and arguably is more evil, asking the devil to "unsex me here" associating masculinity with brutality and betraying the patriarchal doctrine of a meek woman in Shakespeare's time which further reinforces the theme of appearance versus reality.

5.8. After the thane of Cawdor is executed for being a traitor to Scotland, he states: "There's no art to find the minds construction in the face: He was a gentleman on whom i built an absolute trust" This is ironic as he thinks he can trust the new thane of Cawdor; however, behind closed doors, Macbeth is just as duplicitous and deceitful just to get what he wants.

5.9. As Lady Macbeth "sells her soul" to the evil "spirits" she asks them " Come, thick night,and pall thee in the dunnest smoke of Hell". She uses the verb "pall" to ask the evil spirits to conceal from heavens eyes under a black sheet used to wrap up dead bodies; furthermore, the superlative "dunnest" highlights that she wants to be covered by the darkest smoke so that her egregious sins are even hidden from God in "hell". "Nor Heaven peep through the blanket... to cry "Hold, hold!" suggests that her sin is so dire and evil that heaven can't see through her blanket of malice and stop her.

5.10. Perhaps one of the most importance instances of appearance vs reality, is when Malcolm refers to Satan "angles are bright still, though the brightest fell". Perhaps Shakespeare is questioning even God, who may have wanted to trust Satan; however, Satan's desire to become God, thus gain power, even when he arguably had the most power out of the angles, as his name even translates to mean brightness. It is implied that Macbeth is linked to Lucifer, as he already has power; however, his lust for more leads him to act deceitfully and "be the serpent under't" which further alludes to the biblical story of Adam and Eve, and how the the sin of man became innate within all of us. Perhaps Shakespeare uses all this ecclesiastical imagery, to embed the duplicity of Satan into the character of Macbeth, and that even God was able to fool himself into believing Satan was good till the very end, which perhaps is reflected in the naive nature of Duncan.

6. Macbeth's state of mind

6.1. Shakespeare presents Macbeth's state of mind as agitated and in turmoil in his soliloquy in which he contemplates murdering King Duncan. The soliloquy beings with a monosyllabic sentence "If it were done, when 'tis done", which emphasises his deliberation and rational thinking as he plots to murder Duncan, This could suggest he is cold-hearted and tenacious when he thinks about killing Duncan. Shakespeare puts stress on the "done" using iambic meter which suggests Macbeth's eagerness to kill Duncan and gain power. Additionally, the half-rhyme of "surcease, success" generates juxtaposition , but through the para-rhype, it displays their interconnection and produces a discordant tone. Shakespeare perhaps is deliberately is trying to generate sympathy for Macbeth; although he intends to commit the reprehensible crime of regicide, the fact that he struggles to commit the crime displays the internal turmoil he is suffering.

6.2. In addition, Macbeth tries to assert logic through his soliloquy; this presents his as ruthless and cold-blooded. Macbeth lists the reasons why killing Duncan would be unnatural by highlighting his purity by using words such as "meek" and "virtues" which contain the semantic field, pertinent to benevolence,, in order to dissuade himself from murder. His rational thinking present him as cruel and calculated. Shakespeare has made Macbeths mind oscillate from volatile instability to rational thinking, which highlights the dangerous nature of committing regicide - dissolves you ability to remain morally and mentally stable. The plosive alliteration of "deep damnation" primarily suggest the purely dangerous and damnable nature of killing a king, but the fact Macbeth acknowledgement that he will face judgement from God if he kills the king but still follows through could be used to argue that Macbeth is definitely evil and corrupted, as he simply disregards God. Additionally, the metaphor "no spur to prick the sides of my intent, but only vaulting ambition", is a horse related metaphor that suggests that despite his insatiable thirst for power, Macbeth's inability to convince himself to commit regicide could be argued this doesn't present Macbeth as weak, rather his logical thinking and emotion are able to stop his ambition from murder, which arguably presents his as level-headed and strong.

6.3. Finally. Shakespeare uses an antithetical structure to convey the motif f good and evil and to mirror Macbeth's conflicted state of mind. Duncan is described as a "new born babe" connotes innocence and vulnerability, and is a metaphor to invoke pity for the audience and to display the humanitarian and emotive side of Macbeth. This contrasts to the evil thoughts Macbeth is thinking about, like killing Duncan "it were done quickly"; however, the euphemism suggests his ambiguity, and uncertainty. Furthermore, The condition at the start "if" reflects the whole conflict within Macbeth's apprehensive mind. In conclusion Shakespeare probably displays Macbeth as conflicted as a representation of the pure and good God, and the pure evil of the witches, and he is used to display the innate human struggle of remaining pure in the face of temptation

7. Act 1 scene 7,