Immunity

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Immunity by Mind Map: Immunity

1. natural secretions

1.1. stomach acid- contains HCl acid

1.2. saliva

1.3. tears - contain lysozymein liposomes( an enzyme that breaks down microbes)

2. First line of defense- Non specific

2.1. made of keratin - are tough and inpenetrable by water - a physical barrier

2.2. skin

2.2.1. clotting prevents blood loss and microbe entry,

2.2.2. salt and fatty acids restrict the growth of fungi and bacteria

2.3. mucous membranes - are sticky and trap dust microbes - cilia move them along

2.3.1. reproductive tracts

2.3.2. stomach

2.3.3. gastro intestinal tracts

2.3.4. urinary

2.3.5. respiratory

2.4. natural skin , intestine, vagina flora

2.4.1. non pathogenic microbes

2.4.2. limit space for harmful microbes

2.4.3. use of antibiotics can deplete this flora

3. ANTIBODIES

3.1. have a constant region

3.2. have a variable region with billions different gene combinations possible

3.3. IGG changes shape and activates complement proteins and more IGG and directly neutralises toxins

3.4. antibody levels rise and fall according to level of pathogen

3.4.1. primary reponse when antigen first enters body is slow as very few antibodies

3.4.2. secondary response when antigen enters the body for a second time is FAST as many more memory cells this time that can differentiate into plasma cells

3.4.2.1. this is the antigen binding site

3.5. . Globular glycoproteins Plasma proteins Immunoglobulins 4 polypeptide chains: 2 light, 2 heavy Disulphide bridges hold molecule together