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Semester 2 by Mind Map: Semester 2

1. Animal Cell

2. Organelles of The Cell (Unit 8 Section 3)

3. Parts of The Cell (Unit 8 Section 2)

4. Unit 8 Section 1

5. Plant cells (Unir 8 Section 4)

6. Unit 9 (2)

7. Requirements For Cellular Based Life 1.They consist of organized parts 2.They obtain energy from their surroundings 3.They perform chemical reactions 4.They change with time 5.They adapt to their environment 6.They reproduce 7.They maintain homeostasis 8.They share a common history

8. 1.Cells: Cells are the basic building block of life 2.Tissue: Cells form muscle and organ tissue 3.Organs: Organs help our body function 4.Organ Systems: Organ systems are groups of organs that correlate to a specific body function, like eating 5.Organism: Groups of organ systems make up an organism

9. The ER processes proteins and prepares them for transport and secretion. The cell membrane receives the vesicles that contain proteins tagged for secretion from the cell. The RNA has to interact with all of the organelles in the cell. The RNA especially has to communicate with the organelles within the nucleus

10. Plant Cell

11. Plant cells have a cell wall unlike animal cells do which give them their boxed shape. Plant cells also have a vacuole which takes up 30% of the cells space. Plants get their green pigment from a organelle called chloroplast.

12. DNA takes the shape of a double helix, DNA is made up of two strands that are composed of nitrogenous bases and nucleotides. The bases are Adenine, Thymine, Guanine and Cytosine. A goes to T and G goes to C. DNA nucleotides are made up of sugar, a phosphate group, and one of the bases A,T,G, or C.

13. RNA polymerase binds into the promoter on the DNA. RNA polymerase then adds RNA nucleotides that are complementary to the DNA sequences. Uracil replaces Thymine. RNA polymerase reaches a terminal signal and the new strand is released. This is called mRNA.

13.1. The mRNA meets with the rRNA and the rRNA reads the codons on mRNA and they make tRNA with the correpsponding anti codons. tRNA then brings the right amino acids that match the letter of the anti codons and the chain keeps going until a stop codon is reached.

14. Codons are located on mRNA and when translation happens tRNA matches the codons with the right bases making anti-codons. Codons in general are every 3 bases so every 3 bases there is a specific amino acid that is used for that codon, you can use a codon table to figure out what bases go to what amino acid.

15. UNit 10 section 1

16. UNit 10 section 2

17. UNit 10 section 3

18. Parts And Composition of Chromosome DNA : DNA, RNA (Nucleic Acid), Proteins

18.1. Chromatid

18.2. Centromere

18.3. Histones

19. During this phase, a cell undergoes two major processes. Cytokinesis then occurs, dividing the cytoplasm and cell body into two new cells. Mitosis is divided into four major stages that take place after interphase and in the following order: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

20. In Meiosis Independent assortment occurs before crossing over in metaphase and anaphase 1. Synapsis occurs in prophase 1.

21. Self pollination is the process of transferring pollen from the anther to stigma in the same plant. Cross pollination is when pollen from one plant is inserted into the stigma of another

22. The terms dominant and recessive describe the pattern of what genes are dominant and recessive and what the combined allele of offspring could be

23. Genotypic ratios are ratios which show what the chance is of a specific genotype showing up in a offspring. Phenotypic Ratios show the possible phenotypes that will show in an offspring

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