Biology Semester 3

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Biology Semester 3 by Mind Map: Biology Semester 3

1. Quiz 1 - Genetics

1.1. The Human Genome

1.1.1. Chromosomes

1.1.1.1. 23 pairs of chromosomes

1.1.1.1.1. 22 autosomes

1.1.1.1.2. 1 allosome

1.1.1.1.3. Found inside nucleus and hold DNA

1.1.1.2. Bands

1.1.1.2.1. Guanine and Cytosine pairs darker

1.1.1.2.2. Adenine and Thymine pairs lighter

1.1.1.3. Regions

1.1.1.3.1. P

1.1.1.3.2. Q

1.1.1.3.3. Split into regions, bands and sub-bands

1.1.1.4. Centromere

1.1.1.4.1. Joining point of 2 identical chromatids

1.1.1.5. Karyotype

1.1.1.5.1. Map of chromosomes

1.1.2. Genes

1.1.2.1. Piece of DNA that codes for a protein

1.1.2.2. Allele

1.1.2.2.1. Alternate version of the gene

1.1.2.3. Genotype leads to phenotype

1.1.2.3.1. Dominant

1.1.2.3.2. Recessive

1.1.2.3.3. Codominance

1.1.2.4. Traits

1.1.2.4.1. Qualities or characteristics

1.1.3. Gregor Mendel

1.1.3.1. Segregation

1.1.3.1.1. When gametes are formed, two factors for each trait split from each other

1.1.3.2. Independent Assortment

1.1.3.2.1. Gametes are made of different chromosomes and there are 223 possibilities of different gametes

1.1.4. DNA

1.1.4.1. Deoxyribose long double helixed structure

1.1.4.1.1. Nucleotides

1.1.4.1.2. Backbone

1.1.4.2. Coils around histones to make chromosomes

1.2. Gene Expression

1.2.1. Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

1.2.1.1. Meitosis

1.2.1.1.1. Transcription

1.2.1.1.2. Translation

1.2.1.1.3. SNP

1.2.1.1.4. Copy Number Variants

1.2.2. Meiosis

1.2.2.1. Cell division to produce gametes

1.2.2.2. Crossing over

1.2.2.2.1. Exchange of segments of DNA

1.2.2.3. Sex-linked genes

1.2.2.3.1. Traits in men as there is less chance of dominant allele due to small Y chromatid

1.2.2.4. Trisomy

1.2.2.4.1. Extra (3) chromosomes

1.2.2.4.2. Downsyndrome (21st chromosome)

1.2.3. Epigenetics

1.2.3.1. Environmental factors cause different genes to act differently

1.2.3.1.1. Methylation

1.2.3.1.2. Acetylation

1.2.3.1.3. Examples

1.2.4. Autism

1.2.4.1. Characteristics

1.2.4.1.1. Social issues

1.2.4.1.2. Communication

1.2.4.1.3. Behaviours

1.2.4.1.4. Cannot be traced to a Mendelian (single-gene) mutation

1.2.4.2. Brain

1.2.4.2.1. Damaged mirror neurons

1.2.4.2.2. Increased amygdala activity

1.2.4.2.3. More white matter in frontal lobes

1.2.4.2.4. Abnormal columns of visual cortex

1.2.4.3. Environmental factors

1.2.4.3.1. Prenatal

1.2.4.3.2. Mercury and toxin exposure

1.2.4.4. Marker

1.2.4.4.1. Metabolic Abnormalities

1.2.4.5. Management

1.2.4.5.1. Family and social support

1.2.4.5.2. ABA

2. Quiz 2 - Development

2.1. Neurodevelopment

2.1.1. Cell Migration

2.1.1.1. Along radial glia cells

2.1.1.1.1. From ventricular layer until cerebral cortex

2.1.2. Differentiation

2.1.2.1. Sonic Hedgehog

2.1.2.1.1. Ventral neurons into motor neurons

2.1.2.1.2. Released from notochord

2.1.2.2. BMP

2.1.2.2.1. Dorsal neurons into sensory neurons

2.1.2.3. HOX gene

2.1.2.3.1. Rosto-caudal differenciation

2.1.3. Synaptogenesis

2.1.3.1. Growth cones

2.1.3.1.1. Lamellipodia

2.1.3.1.2. Fillipodia

2.1.4. Apoptosis

2.1.4.1. Programmed self destruction of cells due to lack of NGF

2.1.4.1.1. Released from post synaptic cell

2.1.4.1.2. Caspases kills presynaptic cell

2.1.5. Synapse Rearrangement

2.1.5.1. Fasciculation

2.1.5.1.1. Axons that fire together, wire together

2.1.5.1.2. Cell Adhesion Molecules

2.1.5.2. Synaptic pruning

2.1.6. Myelination

2.1.6.1. From spinal cord to forebrain

2.1.6.1.1. Finishes around age 20

2.1.6.2. From sensory to motor

2.1.6.3. Speeds action potential

2.1.6.4. White covering of axons

2.2. Critical Periods

2.2.1. Plasticity

2.2.1.1. Neurons change according to experience

2.2.1.1.1. During exams

2.2.1.1.2. If an organ is removed, the brain area connected to that organ won't be wasted

2.2.1.1.3. Musicians Dystonia

2.2.1.2. Creating new neurons

2.2.1.2.1. Hippocampus

2.2.1.2.2. Ventricular zone

2.2.1.3. Strengthen old synapses

2.2.1.4. Drugs

2.2.1.4.1. After myelination is complete

2.2.1.4.2. Body compensates for expected effects

2.2.2. Critical Period

2.2.2.1. External stimuli have increased influence

2.2.2.1.1. Neurotropic factors

2.2.2.1.2. GABA

2.2.2.2. If one eye is covered in critical period, the cortex doesn't recognise signals from the eye

2.2.2.2.1. Binocular deprevation

2.2.2.3. Birds

2.2.2.3.1. Chaffinches

2.2.2.3.2. Canaries

2.2.2.3.3. Imprinting

2.2.2.4. Development in Cats

2.2.2.4.1. If one eye is covered in non-critical period, there's no effect

2.2.2.4.2. Amblyopia

2.2.2.5. Frog

2.2.2.5.1. Third eye works only if grafted before critical period

2.2.2.6. Cataracts until 6 months

2.2.2.6.1. Damage face recognition

2.2.2.6.2. Not a complete loss of plasticity

2.2.2.7. Orphans

2.2.2.7.1. Little human contact

2.2.2.7.2. Earlier adoption (pre 6 months)

2.2.2.7.3. Later adoption

3. Quiz 3 - Emotion

3.1. Evolution of Emotion

3.1.1. Emotions are genetic and natural

3.1.1.1. Universal emotions

3.1.1.1.1. Universal facial expressions

3.1.1.2. Social smiles in blind babies

3.1.1.3. Adapted communication without language

3.1.1.3.1. Prosocial

3.1.1.3.2. Paul Ekman

3.1.1.4. Basic emotions

3.1.1.4.1. Angry

3.1.1.4.2. Happy

3.1.1.4.3. Sad

3.1.1.4.4. Surprised

3.1.1.4.5. Disgust

3.1.1.4.6. Fear

3.1.1.5. Complex emotions

3.1.1.5.1. Guilt, shame, pride, regret

3.1.1.5.2. Help show attitude and future intentions

3.1.1.5.3. Automatic appeal for forgiveness and support

3.1.1.5.4. Regret

3.1.2. Environment has influence

3.1.2.1. Doctors

3.1.2.2. Different cultures

3.1.3. Temperament from birth

3.1.3.1. Responsive

3.1.3.1.1. Anxiety

3.1.3.2. Low response

3.1.3.2.1. Anti social

3.1.3.3. No response

3.1.3.3.1. Psychopathology

3.2. Theories of Emotion

3.2.1. Classical

3.2.1.1. James - Lang Theory

3.2.1.1.1. Physical state leads to emotion

3.2.1.2. Cannon - Bard Theory

3.2.1.2.1. Automatic and emotional response occur simultaneously and independently

3.2.1.3. Schachter - Singer Theory

3.2.1.3.1. Arousal leads to cognitive assessment which leads to the identification of an emotion

3.2.2. More modern

3.2.2.1. Cacciopo Theory

3.2.2.1.1. Different emotions require different levels of cognition

3.2.2.2. Demasio

3.2.2.2.1. Somatic Markers

3.3. Some Different Emotions

3.3.1. Stress

3.3.1.1. Hans Selye

3.3.1.1.1. Adaptation syndrome

3.3.1.1.2. Stressor -> resistance -> exhaustion

3.3.1.2. HPA Axis

3.3.1.2.1. Sensory system -> Amygdala - (striatal terminals)> HPA Axis or Lateral hypothalamus

3.3.1.3. Immune System

3.3.1.3.1. T lymphocytes

3.3.1.3.2. B lymphocytes

3.3.1.3.3. Stress hormone (cortisol) suppress both lymphocyte synthesis

3.3.2. Fear

3.3.2.1. Caused by amygdala activation

3.3.2.1.1. Response to sensory processing

3.3.2.1.2. Automatic adrenal response

3.3.2.1.3. Fear conditioning

3.3.2.1.4. Inhibition by ACC and Temporal Pole

3.3.2.1.5. Damage to amygdala

3.3.3. Anger

3.3.3.1. Autonomic Nervous System response

3.3.3.1.1. Heart rate and testosterone increase

3.3.3.1.2. Left hemisphere activation

3.3.3.1.3. Cortisol decrease

3.3.3.2. Rage

3.3.3.2.1. Preverbal defence mechanism

3.3.3.2.2. Shame rage

3.3.4. Aggression

3.3.4.1. Amygdala activation

3.3.4.1.1. Competitive, forceful and predatory

3.3.4.1.2. Inhibition by PFC and ACC

3.3.4.1.3. High testosterone levels

3.3.4.1.4. Low serotonin levels

3.3.4.2. Genetic

3.3.4.2.1. Can be selectively bred

3.3.5. Empathy

3.3.5.1. Article by Vignemont & Singer, 2006

3.3.5.1.1. Seeing others in pain

3.3.5.1.2. Seeing others being touched

3.3.5.1.3. Regret

3.3.6. Pleasure

3.3.6.1. Article by Berridge & Kringelbach, 2013

3.3.6.1.1. Two types of well-being

3.3.6.1.2. Reward

3.4. Emotion Regulation

3.4.1. Article by Etkin, Büchel & Gross, 2015

3.4.1.1. Three types of regulation

3.4.1.1.1. Intrinsic

3.4.1.1.2. Extrinsic

3.4.1.1.3. Implicit

3.4.1.2. Regulation can occur at different stages of generation

3.4.1.2.1. Situation selection

3.4.1.2.2. Three steps of cognition and emotion regulation

4. Quiz 4 - Psychopathology

4.1. Schizophrenia

4.1.1. Positive symptoms

4.1.1.1. Hallucinations

4.1.1.1.1. Imagining sensory

4.1.1.2. Delusions

4.1.1.2.1. Reality testing

4.1.1.3. Fidgeting

4.1.2. Negative symptoms

4.1.2.1. Anhedonia

4.1.2.1.1. Flat expression

4.1.2.2. Alogia

4.1.2.2.1. Slow, non-coherent speech

4.1.2.3. Asociality

4.1.2.3.1. Bad working memory

4.1.2.3.2. Bad executive functioning

4.1.2.4. Avolution

4.1.2.5. Catatonia

4.1.2.5.1. Irregular movements

4.1.2.6. Concrete thinking

4.1.2.6.1. Proverb test

4.1.2.7. Prepulse inhibition

4.1.2.7.1. Their reaction when they know they're going to be shocked isn't reduced

4.1.2.7.2. Endophenotype

4.1.3. Genetics

4.1.3.1. 50% concordance

4.1.3.2. More men

4.1.4. Environmental Factors

4.1.4.1. Prenatal influenza

4.1.4.2. Thiamine and vitamine D deficiency

4.1.4.3. Maternal smoking

4.1.4.4. Prodromal stage

4.1.4.4.1. Lasts about a year

4.1.4.4.2. Pre disease

4.1.5. Brain

4.1.5.1. Larger ventricles

4.1.5.1.1. More CSF

4.1.5.1.2. Less reaction to drugs

4.1.5.2. Smaller amygdala

4.1.5.3. Disorganised hippocampus

4.1.5.3.1. Pyramidal cells aren't organised

4.1.5.3.2. Working memory

4.1.5.3.3. Word salad

4.1.5.4. Damaged eye fields

4.1.5.4.1. Saccades

4.1.5.4.2. Non smooth eye movements

4.1.5.4.3. Endophenotype

4.1.5.5. Thinning grey matter in right PFC

4.1.5.6. Inflamatory cytokines

4.1.5.6.1. Microglial activation

4.1.5.6.2. Dendritic retraction

4.1.5.6.3. Synaptic pruning

4.1.6. Childhood

4.1.6.1. Trauma may effect myelination

4.1.6.2. Delayed maturation

4.1.6.3. Reduced IQ

4.1.7. Medication

4.1.7.1. Dopamine Hypothesis

4.1.7.1.1. Amphetamine psychosis

4.1.7.1.2. Typical neuroleptic

4.1.7.1.3. Atypical neuroleptic

4.1.7.2. Glutamate Hypothesis

4.1.7.2.1. Angel dust

4.1.7.2.2. Not enough glutamate is the cause schizophrenic symptoms

4.2. Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD)

4.2.1. Failure to conform to social and legal codes of behavior and the violation of the rights of others

4.2.1.1. Criminal lifestyle and antisocial behavior

4.2.2. Genetics

4.2.2.1. 3% of men and 1% of women

4.2.2.2. Criminality runs in families

4.2.3. Brain

4.2.3.1. Abnormalities in OFC and limbic system

4.2.3.1.1. Can be caused by lesions of OFC

4.2.3.2. Low emotional response

4.2.3.3. Issues with amygdala

4.2.4. Treatment

4.2.4.1. Learning model that emphasises anger control, social skills, moral reasoning

4.3. Mood Disorders

4.3.1. Unipolar Depression

4.3.1.1. Major Depressive Disorder

4.3.1.1.1. Symptoms

4.3.1.1.2. Genetics

4.3.1.1.3. Environmental factors

4.3.1.1.4. Medication and treatment

4.3.1.1.5. Brain

4.3.1.1.6. Sleep

4.3.1.2. Seasonal Affective Disorder

4.3.1.2.1. Shorter winter days

4.3.1.2.2. Less sunlight

4.3.1.2.3. Phototheraphy

4.3.2. Bipolar Depression

4.3.2.1. Cyclothymia

4.3.2.1.1. Mild bipolar

4.3.2.2. Genetics

4.3.2.2.1. 70% concordance between twins

4.3.2.2.2. Comorbid with depression

4.3.2.2.3. Equal men and women

4.3.2.3. Brain

4.3.2.3.1. Not normal basal ganglia activity

4.3.2.3.2. Bigger amygdala

4.3.2.3.3. Smaller hippocampus

4.3.2.3.4. Neurotransmitters

4.3.2.4. Medication and treatment

4.3.2.4.1. Electrostimulation

4.3.2.4.2. Lithium

4.3.2.4.3. Capsulotomy

4.4. Anxiety Disorders

4.4.1. General Anxiety Disorder

4.4.1.1. Constant fear reactions for at least 6 months

4.4.1.2. Autonomic under arousal

4.4.1.2.1. Blunted due to overuse

4.4.2. Agoraphobia

4.4.2.1. Fear of open places

4.4.3. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

4.4.3.1. Threat of death or serious injury

4.4.3.2. Symptoms

4.4.3.2.1. Dreams and flashbacks

4.4.3.2.2. Hyperarousal and sensetivity

4.4.3.2.3. Avoidance of place or object

4.4.3.3. Genetics

4.4.3.3.1. More women than men

4.4.3.3.2. More kids than adults

4.4.3.3.3. COMTval158met

4.4.3.4. Brain

4.4.3.4.1. Smaller hippocampus

4.4.3.4.2. More active amygdala

4.4.3.4.3. Less vmPFC activity

4.4.3.5. Medication

4.4.3.5.1. Propronolol

4.4.4. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

4.4.4.1. Obsessive thoughts and compulsions to reduce them

4.4.4.2. Genetics

4.4.4.2.1. 68% concordance

4.4.4.2.2. No gender difference

4.4.4.3. Environmental factors

4.4.4.3.1. Trauma, infection or injury

4.4.4.4. Brain

4.4.4.4.1. More activity in basal ganglia than normal anxiety

4.4.4.5. Treatments

4.4.4.5.1. Behavioural treatments

4.4.4.5.2. Antidepressants

4.4.4.6. Marker

4.4.4.6.1. Response inhibition

4.4.5. Panic Disorder

4.4.5.1. Genetics

4.4.5.1.1. More women than med

4.4.5.1.2. Comorbid with anxiety and depression

4.4.5.2. Can be caused by expectations and anticipations

4.4.5.2.1. Social phobia

4.4.5.2.2. Agoraphobia

4.4.5.3. Change in body settings

4.4.5.3.1. Sodium lactate or CO2 increase

4.4.5.3.2. Read by hypothalamus

4.4.5.3.3. Activation of locus coeruleus

4.4.6. Babies

4.4.6.1. SNP for COMPT gene

4.4.6.2. High reactivity

4.4.6.2.1. Anxiety

4.4.6.2.2. Val66Met

4.4.7. Brain

4.4.7.1. Monoamines

4.4.7.1.1. Serotonin

4.4.7.1.2. Norepinephrine

4.4.7.1.3. GABA

5. Aging

5.1. Life expectancy

5.1.1. Increased

5.2. Changes

5.2.1. Cognition

5.2.1.1. Intelligence

5.2.1.1.1. Fluid

5.2.1.1.2. Crystallized

5.2.1.2. Attention

5.2.1.2.1. Selective attention decreased

5.2.1.2.2. Frontal lobes

5.2.2. Memory

5.2.2.1. Working memory

5.2.2.1.1. Holding small pieces of relevant information for limited time

5.2.2.2. Episodic memory

5.2.2.2.1. Remembering experiences

5.2.2.2.2. The ability to create new memories sometimes decreases

5.2.3. Brain

5.2.3.1. Decreased cortical volume

5.2.3.1.1. Attention

5.2.3.2. Neural modulation decreased

5.2.3.2.1. Less monoanemines

5.2.3.2.2. Less activation in brain

5.2.3.3. Decrease in myelination

5.2.3.4. Decrease in hippocampal volume

5.2.3.4.1. Could be too much cortisol

5.2.3.4.2. Bigger ventricles

5.2.3.5. Activation across more sites

5.2.3.5.1. Both hemispheres in comparison to youth who use one

5.2.3.5.2. More activation than youth

5.2.4. Become more clear as people live older

5.2.5. Other factors affecting cognition

5.2.5.1. Sensory decline

5.2.5.1.1. Ben-David study

5.2.5.1.2. Stroop Test

5.2.5.2. Positive effect bias

5.2.5.2.1. Elders tend to be more positive

5.2.5.2.2. Tend to focus on positive

5.2.5.3. Time of day

5.2.5.3.1. Elders reach peak earlier on in the day

5.2.5.4. Neural inflammation

5.2.5.4.1. Natural

5.3. Stereotype Threat

5.3.1. Memory decline

5.4. Alzheimers

5.4.1. Cellular changes

5.4.1.1. Senile plaques

5.4.1.1.1. Patches of degenerating axon terminals and dendrites

5.4.1.1.2. In the grey matter of the brain

5.4.1.2. Neurofibrillary tangles

5.4.1.2.1. TAU forms tangles in cell

5.4.1.2.2. Responce to plaques

5.4.1.3. Basal forebrain disappears

5.4.1.3.1. Cells die

5.4.1.3.2. Stop acetylcholine production

5.4.2. 4 Stages

5.4.2.1. Pre

5.4.2.1.1. Difficulty remembering recently learned facts

5.4.2.1.2. Inability to aquire new information

5.4.2.1.3. Confused with old age

5.4.2.2. Early

5.4.2.2.1. Severe problems remembering new facts

5.4.2.2.2. Vocab shrinks

5.4.2.2.3. Decrease in word fluency

5.4.2.3. Moderate

5.4.2.3.1. Speech difficulty

5.4.2.3.2. Less motor actions

5.4.2.3.3. Failure to recognise close relatives

5.4.2.4. Advanced

5.4.2.4.1. Inability to preform tasks

5.4.2.4.2. Language reduced to simple words

5.4.2.4.3. Loss of reality