Social Change

Janis Ward-CatlettLDSL 743 - Minor 1

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Social Change by Mind Map: Social Change

1. Dimensions and Sources of Change

1.1. The nature of social change

1.1.1. What is changing

1.1.2. Level at which change takes place

1.1.2.1. Individuals

1.1.2.1.1. Attitudes

1.1.2.1.2. Beliefs

1.1.2.1.3. Aspirations

1.1.2.1.4. Motivations

1.1.2.2. Groups

1.1.2.2.1. Communication

1.1.2.2.2. Confliction resolution

1.1.2.2.3. Cohesion

1.1.2.2.4. Unity

1.1.2.2.5. Competition

1.1.2.2.6. Acceptance and rejection

1.1.2.3. Organizations

1.1.2.3.1. Alterations in structure and function

1.1.2.3.2. Hierarchy

1.1.2.3.3. Communication

1.1.2.3.4. Role relationship

1.1.2.3.5. Productivity

1.1.2.3.6. Recruitment

1.1.2.3.7. Socialization

1.1.2.4. Institutions

1.1.2.4.1. Alterations in marriage and family

1.1.2.4.2. Education

1.1.2.4.3. Religious practices

1.1.2.5. Society

1.1.2.5.1. Modification of the social stratification

1.1.2.5.2. Economic

1.1.2.5.3. Political systems

1.1.3. What is changing and at what level

1.1.4. Magnitude of change

1.1.4.1. Incremental or marginal

1.1.4.2. Comprehensive

1.1.4.3. Revolutionary

1.1.5. Intention

1.1.5.1. Deliberate

1.1.5.2. Unplanned

1.2. Conceptualizations of social change

1.2.1. Different group activities

1.2.2. Change in the structure of society

1.2.3. Change in the structure and functioning of society

1.2.4. Change in social relationships

1.2.5. Change in social structure and social relationships

1.3. Sources of change

1.3.1. Technology

1.3.1.1. Creates new alternatives; generates new problems

1.3.1.2. Considered a factor in alienation

1.3.2. Ideology

1.3.2.1. Legitimization and rationalization of behavior and social relationships

1.3.2.2. Promote status quo or contribute to change

1.3.3. Competition

1.3.3.1. Contributes to social change in both ecological and organizational contexts

1.3.3.2. Stimulates motivation

1.3.4. Conflict

1.3.4.1. Conscious, intermittent, and personal

1.3.4.2. Emphasizes the differences between parties and minimizes similarities

1.3.5. Political and Economic Forces

1.3.5.1. Three levels

1.3.5.1.1. Federal

1.3.5.1.2. State

1.3.5.1.3. Local

1.3.5.2. Induce change

1.3.5.2.1. Regulate

1.3.5.2.2. Create

1.3.5.2.3. Engage

1.3.5.3. Class position

1.3.5.3.1. Lifestyle

1.3.5.3.2. Values

1.3.5.3.3. Interaction patterns

1.3.5.3.4. Power

1.3.5.3.5. Mobility

1.3.6. Globalization

1.3.6.1. Integration of world economy

1.3.6.2. Social contradictions

1.3.6.3. Wage inequalities

1.3.6.4. Weaken the power to tax

1.3.7. Structural Strains

1.3.7.1. Population imbalances

1.3.7.2. Anomie

1.3.7.3. Scarcity

1.3.7.4. Role and value conflicts

1.3.7.5. Inconsistencies

1.3.7.6. Status anguish

2. Theories of Change

2.1. Evolutionary

2.1.1. Charles Darwin

2.1.1.1. Natural laws

2.1.1.1.1. Progress

2.1.1.1.2. Development

2.1.1.1.3. Advancement

2.1.2. Robert A. Nisbet

2.1.2.1. Object of inquiry

2.1.2.1.1. Social class

2.1.2.1.2. Kinship

2.1.2.1.3. Culture

2.1.2.1.4. Law

2.1.2.1.5. Society

2.1.2.1.6. Other

2.1.3. Auguste Comte

2.1.3.1. Law of the three stages

2.1.3.1.1. Theologoical

2.1.3.1.2. Metaphysical

2.1.3.1.3. Positive

2.1.4. Lewis Henry Morgan

2.1.4.1. Three main stages of evolution

2.1.4.1.1. Savagery

2.1.4.1.2. Barbarism

2.1.4.1.3. Civilization

2.1.5. Herbert Spencer

2.1.5.1. Course of natural development

2.1.5.1.1. Relatively simple patterns

2.1.5.1.2. More complex structures

2.1.6. Gerhard and Jean Lenski and Patrick Nolan

2.1.6.1. Basic aspects of the evolutionary process

2.1.6.1.1. Continuity

2.1.6.1.2. Innovation

2.1.6.1.3. Extinction

2.1.7. Walt W. Rostow

2.1.7.1. Five stages of economic growth

2.1.7.1.1. Traditional society

2.1.7.1.2. Preconditions for takeoff

2.1.7.1.3. Takeoff

2.1.7.1.4. Drive to maturity

2.1.7.1.5. Age of high mass consumption

2.2. Conflict

2.2.1. Three main theorists

2.2.1.1. Karl Marx

2.2.1.1.1. Five major stages of history

2.2.1.2. Lewis Coser

2.2.1.2.1. Effects of conflict

2.2.1.3. Ralf Dahrendorf

2.2.1.3.1. Division of society

2.3. Structural-Functional

2.3.1. Talcott Parsons

2.3.1.1. Three systems

2.3.1.1.1. Personality

2.3.1.1.2. Organism

2.3.1.1.3. Culture

2.3.1.2. Sources of social change

2.3.1.2.1. Endogenous

2.3.1.2.2. Exogenous

2.3.2. Willian F. Ogburn

2.3.2.1. Culture change

2.3.2.1.1. Material

2.3.2.1.2. Nonmaterial

2.4. Social-Psychological

2.4.1. Max Weber

2.4.2. Everett E. Hagen

2.4.2.1. Traditional society

2.4.2.1.1. Authoritarian

2.4.2.1.2. Uncreative

2.4.2.1.3. Noninnovational

2.4.2.2. Modern society

2.4.2.2.1. Creativity

2.4.2.2.2. Curiosity

2.4.2.2.3. Openess

2.4.3. David C. McClelland

3. Patterns of Change

3.1. Evolution

3.1.1. Key aspects of evolutionary patterns

3.1.1.1. Directionality

3.1.1.2. Novelty

3.1.1.3. Variety

3.1.1.4. Selectivity

3.1.2. Stages

3.1.2.1. Primitive

3.1.2.2. Archaic

3.1.2.3. Historic

3.1.2.4. Early modern

3.1.2.5. Modern religious

3.1.3. Change patterns

3.1.3.1. Legal systems

3.1.3.2. Religion

3.1.3.3. Stratification

3.1.3.4. Energy utilization

3.1.3.5. Food production

3.2. Diffusion

3.2.1. Crucial elements

3.2.1.1. Innovation

3.2.1.1.1. Characteristics of influence

3.2.1.1.2. Type of decision

3.2.1.1.3. Adopter categories

3.2.1.2. Communication through channels

3.2.1.3. Time

3.2.1.4. Among members of a community

3.2.2. Five stages of adoption process

3.2.2.1. Awareness

3.2.2.2. Interest

3.2.2.3. Evolution

3.2.2.4. Trial

3.2.2.5. Adoption

3.2.3. Models

3.2.3.1. Center-periphery

3.2.3.2. Proliferation-of-centers

3.2.4. Components

3.2.4.1. Temporal

3.2.4.2. Spatial

3.3. Acculturation

3.3.1. Voluntary

3.3.2. Involuntary

3.3.3. Forced

3.3.4. Planned

3.4. Revolution

3.4.1. Ideal types

3.4.1.1. Leftist

3.4.1.2. Rightist

3.4.2. Six patterns

3.4.2.1. Jacquerie

3.4.2.2. Millenarian Rebellion

3.4.2.3. Anarchistic Rebellion

3.4.2.4. Jacobean Communist Revolution

3.4.2.5. Conspiratorial Coup d'Etat

3.4.2.6. Militarized Mass Insurrection

3.4.3. Systems

3.4.3.1. Class

3.4.3.2. Status

3.4.3.3. Power

3.5. Modernization

3.5.1. Patterns

3.5.1.1. Industrial

3.5.1.2. Acculturative

3.5.1.3. Induced

3.5.2. Spheres

3.5.2.1. Economic

3.5.2.2. Political

3.5.2.3. Cultural

3.6. Industrialization

3.6.1. Distinctions

3.6.1.1. Preindustrial

3.6.1.2. Early industrial

3.6.1.3. Mature industrial

3.6.1.4. Postindustrial

3.6.2. Factors of increased division of labor

3.6.2.1. Growth

3.6.2.2. Technology

3.6.2.3. Development

3.6.3. Change in population patterns

3.6.3.1. Birth

3.6.3.2. Death

3.6.3.3. Marriages

3.6.3.4. Migration

3.7. Urbanization

3.7.1. Highest rates

3.7.1.1. Japan

3.7.1.2. Uruguay

3.7.2. Lowest rates

3.7.2.1. Israel

3.7.2.2. United Kingdom

3.7.3. Heterpolises

3.7.3.1. Diverse blend of ethic groups

3.7.3.2. Economic activities

3.7.3.3. Lifestyles

3.7.4. High tendencies

3.7.4.1. Personal disorganization

3.7.4.2. Mental breakdown

3.7.4.3. Suicide

3.7.4.4. Delinquency

3.7.4.5. Crime

3.7.4.6. Corruption

3.7.4.7. Disorder

3.8. Bureaucratization

3.8.1. Changes toward greater rationality

3.8.1.1. Decision making

3.8.1.2. Improved operating efficiency

3.8.1.3. More effective attainment of goals

4. Spheres of Change

4.1. The Family

4.1.1. The changing functions of the American family

4.1.1.1. Economic

4.1.1.2. Productive

4.1.1.3. Religious

4.1.1.4. Recreational

4.1.1.5. Educational

4.1.1.6. Status conferring

4.1.1.7. Reproductive

4.1.2. Current trends

4.1.2.1. Marriage

4.1.2.1.1. Delay

4.1.2.1.2. Forgo

4.1.2.2. Family size

4.1.2.2.1. Decreased

4.1.2.2.2. Postponed childbearing

4.1.2.2.3. Streamlined family

4.1.2.2.4. Planned childlessness

4.1.3. Divorce

4.1.3.1. Higher for blacks than whites

4.1.3.2. Higher in the West

4.1.3.3. Higher percentage for females

4.1.4. The sexual revolution

4.1.4.1. Sexual liberation

4.1.4.2. Greater freedom for women

4.1.4.3. Alternatives to marriage

4.1.4.4. Trivialized sex

4.1.4.5. Diminished intimacy

4.1.4.6. Fewer lasting commitments

4.2. Population

4.2.1. Consequences of rapid growth rates

4.2.2. Demographics transition

4.2.2.1. Mortality

4.2.2.2. Fertility

4.2.2.3. Migration

4.2.2.4. Age-sex composition

4.3. Stratification

4.3.1. Types of stratification systems

4.3.1.1. Caste system

4.3.1.1.1. Hereditary

4.3.1.1.2. Endognamous

4.3.1.1.3. Permanent

4.3.1.2. Open class system

4.3.1.3. Estate system

4.3.2. Toward greater equality

4.3.3. Social mobility

4.3.3.1. Intergenerational

4.3.3.2. Intragenerational

4.4. Power Relations

4.4.1. Components

4.4.1.1. Force

4.4.1.2. Authority

4.4.1.2.1. Charismatic

4.4.1.2.2. Traditional

4.4.1.2.3. Bureaucratic/rational legal

4.4.1.3. Influence

4.4.2. The dynamics of power relations

4.4.2.1. Hunting and gathering

4.4.2.2. Simple horticultural

4.4.2.3. Advanced horticultural

4.4.2.4. Agrarian

4.4.2.5. Industrial

4.4.3. Decentralization of power

4.4.3.1. Power elite

4.4.3.1.1. Mortgage bankers

4.4.3.1.2. Real estate developers

4.4.3.1.3. Builders

4.4.3.1.4. Landowners

4.4.3.2. Number of centers increases when....

4.4.3.2.1. Population increases

4.4.3.2.2. Ethnic composition becomes more heterogeneous

4.4.3.2.3. Functional specialization increases

4.4.3.2.4. Number of self-conscious social classes increases

4.4.3.2.5. Immigration increases

4.4.4. Law and power

4.5. Education

4.5.1. Elementary and secondary education

4.5.1.1. Emphasis

4.5.1.1.1. Motivation

4.5.1.1.2. Cooperative learning

4.5.1.1.3. Mental hygiene

4.5.1.2. Educational innovations

4.5.2. Higher education

4.5.3. The great training robbery

4.5.4. Publish or perish

4.5.5. Publish and perish

4.6. The Economy

4.6.1. Production

4.6.1.1. Primary

4.6.1.2. Secondary

4.6.1.3. Tertiary

4.6.2. Distribution

4.6.2.1. Reciprocative

4.6.2.2. Redistributive

4.6.2.3. Exchange

4.6.3. Consumption

4.6.3.1. Pleading nag

4.6.3.2. Persistent nag

4.6.3.3. Forceful nag

4.6.3.4. Demonstrative nag

4.6.3.5. Sugar-coated nag

4.6.3.6. Threatening nag

4.6.3.7. Pity nag

5. Duration of Change

5.1. Duration of Change from a Historical Perspective

5.1.1. Evolution of modern technology

5.1.1.1. Modern craft age

5.1.1.2. Machine age

5.1.1.3. Power age

5.1.1.4. Atomic age

5.1.2. Economic development

5.1.2.1. Stage 1

5.1.2.2. Stage 2

5.1.2.3. Stage 3 - Takeoff

5.1.2.4. Stage 4 - Mature stage

5.1.2.5. Stage 5 - Age of high mass consumption

5.1.3. Principal elements in technology

5.1.3.1. Power

5.1.3.2. Tools

5.1.3.3. Work skills

5.1.3.4. Material

5.1.3.5. Transportation

5.1.3.6. Communication

5.2. Transitory Social Changes

5.2.1. Fads and Fashions

5.2.1.1. Fads

5.2.1.1.1. Different

5.2.1.1.2. Worth notificing

5.2.1.2. Fashion

5.2.1.2.1. Innovation

5.2.1.2.2. Selection

5.2.2. Lifestyles

5.2.2.1. Specific set of values for classifying populations

5.2.2.1.1. Traditionalists or heartlanders

5.2.2.1.2. Modernists

5.2.2.1.3. Cultural creatives

5.2.2.2. Counterculture lifestyles

5.2.2.2.1. Hippies

5.2.2.2.2. Yippies

5.2.2.3. The Oneida Community

5.2.2.3.1. Economic communism

5.2.2.3.2. Mutual criticism

5.2.2.3.3. Complex marriage

5.2.3. Cults

5.2.3.1. Types of social movements

5.2.3.1.1. Revolutionary

5.2.3.1.2. Reactionary

5.2.3.1.3. Reform

5.2.3.1.4. Expressive

5.2.3.2. Life cycle

5.2.3.2.1. Incipiency

5.2.3.2.2. Coalescence

5.2.3.2.3. Institutionalization

5.2.3.2.4. Fragmentation

5.2.3.2.5. Demise

6. Reactions of Change

6.1. Social Stimulants

6.1.1. Desire for prestige

6.1.2. Contact

6.1.3. Friendship obligations

6.1.4. Social class

6.1.5. Authority

6.1.6. The problem of "fit"

6.1.7. Timing

6.1.8. Participation in decision making

6.1.9. Competition

6.2. Psychological Stimulants

6.2.1. Motivations to change

6.2.1.1. Desire for prestige

6.2.1.2. Economic gain

6.2.1.3. Wish to comply with friendship obligations

6.2.2. Perceived needs

6.2.2.1. Subjective

6.2.2.2. Time and culture bound

6.2.3. Communication patterns

6.2.3.1. Use of arousal of fear

6.2.3.2. Organization of the message

6.2.3.3. Primacy-versus-recency

6.2.4. Attitudes

6.2.4.1. Precursors of behavior

6.2.4.2. Evaluative predispositions

6.2.5. Personal influence

6.2.5.1. Compliance

6.2.5.2. Identification

6.2.5.3. Internalization

6.3. Cultural Stimulants

6.3.1. Context cultures

6.3.1.1. Low-context culture

6.3.1.1.1. Messages are explicit

6.3.1.1.2. Fragile bonds

6.3.1.2. High-context culture

6.3.1.2.1. Less information

6.3.1.2.2. Strong bonds

6.3.2. Cultural integration

6.3.2.1. Low

6.3.2.1.1. Conflict

6.3.2.1.2. Confusion

6.3.2.1.3. Waste

6.3.2.1.4. Insecurity

6.3.2.1.5. Social unrest

6.3.2.2. High

6.4. Economic Stimulants

6.4.1. Perception

6.4.2. Costs

6.4.2.1. Organizational

6.4.2.1.1. Initial

6.4.2.1.2. Continuing

6.4.2.2. Social

6.4.2.2.1. Ridicule

6.4.2.2.2. Isolation

6.4.2.2.3. Ostracism

6.4.3. Vested interests

6.5. Resistance to Change

6.6. Social Barriers

6.6.1. Vested interests

6.6.2. Status interests

6.6.3. Social class

6.6.4. Ideological resistance

6.6.5. Group solidarity

6.6.6. Authority

6.6.7. Fear of the unfamiliar

6.6.8. Forms of rationalization

6.6.9. Organized opposition

6.7. Psychological Barriers

6.7.1. Habit

6.7.2. Motivation

6.7.2.1. Family system

6.7.2.2. Class and race

6.7.2.3. Religion and ethical evaluations

6.7.2.4. Legal concepts

6.7.2.5. Concept of the nation-state

6.7.3. Ignorance

6.7.4. Selective perception

6.7.5. Ineffective communication

6.7.5.1. Homophily

6.7.5.2. Heterophily

6.8. Cultural Barriers

6.8.1. Fatalism

6.8.2. Ethnocentrism

6.8.3. Norms of modesty

6.8.4. Cultural integration

6.8.5. Incompatibility

6.8.6. Motor patterns

6.8.7. Superstitions

6.9. Economic Barriers

6.9.1. Cost

6.9.2. Perceived profitability

6.9.3. Limited economic resources

7. Impact of Change

7.1. The Social Impact of Technology

7.1.1. Social effects of invention

7.1.1.1. Dispersion

7.1.1.2. Succession

7.1.1.3. Convergence

7.1.2. Technological innovations affect

7.1.2.1. Wealth

7.1.2.2. Power

7.1.2.3. Culture patterns

7.1.2.4. Gender relationships

7.1.2.5. Work

7.1.2.6. Diet

7.2. Responses to Change

7.2.1. Alienation

7.2.1.1. Sense of powerlessness

7.2.1.2. Sense of meaninglessness

7.2.1.3. Sense of normlessness

7.2.1.4. Value isolation

7.2.1.5. Self-estrangement

7.2.1.6. Social isolation

7.2.2. Retreatism

7.3. Social Change and Social Disorganization

7.3.1. Culture lag

7.3.2. Social morphological revolution

7.3.2.1. Population explosion

7.3.2.2. Population implosion

7.3.2.3. Population diversification

7.4. Unintended Consequences

7.4.1. Change in character

7.4.2. Change in scope

7.5. Coping with Change

8. Costs of Change

8.1. Economic Costs

8.1.1. Economic growth

8.1.1.1. Increased range of choices

8.1.1.2. Greater control over the environment

8.1.1.3. More services and goods

8.1.1.4. Improved status of women

8.1.1.5. Release from hard labor

8.1.1.6. Greater humanitarianism

8.1.1.7. Lower prices

8.1.2. Environmental costs

8.1.2.1. Solid waste

8.1.2.2. Air pollution

8.1.2.3. Water pollution

8.1.2.4. Climate modification

8.1.3. Toward modernity - the costs of transition

8.1.3.1. Cataloging

8.1.3.2. Trade-offs

8.2. Social Costs

8.2.1. Automobile

8.2.2. Quality of life

8.2.3. Ecological undermining of the food economy

8.2.4. Reduction of options

8.2.5. Urban living

8.2.6. Underutilization of college-educated people

8.2.7. Dilemmas of scientific specialization

8.3. Psychological Costs

8.3.1. Robopathology

8.3.2. Anxiety and insecurity

8.3.3. Mental illness

9. Strategies of Change

9.1. Targets, Agents, and Methods of Planned Social Change

9.1.1. Targets of change

9.1.1.1. Target systems

9.1.1.1.1. Individuals

9.1.1.1.2. Organizations

9.1.1.1.3. Communities

9.1.1.1.4. Societies

9.1.1.2. Aspects of individual functioning

9.1.1.2.1. Feelings

9.1.1.2.2. Values

9.1.1.2.3. Attitudes

9.1.1.2.4. Perceptions

9.1.1.2.5. Skills

9.1.1.2.6. Actions

9.1.1.3. Characteristics

9.1.1.3.1. Social

9.1.1.3.2. Environmental

9.1.1.3.3. Task

9.1.2. Change agents

9.1.2.1. Leaders

9.1.2.1.1. Directors

9.1.2.1.2. Advocates

9.1.2.1.3. Backers

9.1.2.1.4. Technicians

9.1.2.1.5. Administrators

9.1.2.1.6. Organizers

9.1.2.2. Supporters

9.1.2.2.1. Workers

9.1.2.2.2. Donors

9.1.2.2.3. Sympathizers

9.1.3. Methods

9.1.3.1. Empirical-rational

9.1.3.2. Normative-reeducative

9.1.3.2.1. Individuals

9.1.3.2.2. Small groups

9.1.3.2.3. Large organizations

9.1.3.2.4. Communities

9.1.3.3. Power-coercive

9.2. Violence

9.2.1. Violent strategies of change

9.2.1.1. Ghetto riots

9.2.1.2. University confrontations

9.2.1.3. Guerrilla warfare

9.2.1.4. Oppressive measures

9.2.1.5. Insurrection

9.2.1.6. Terrorism

9.2.1.7. Revolution

9.3. Nonviolence and Direct Action

9.3.1. Approaches

9.3.1.1. Indirect approach

9.3.1.2. Direct approach

9.3.1.2.1. Attitude change

9.3.1.2.2. Third parties

9.3.2. Direct-action tactics

9.3.2.1. Demonstrations

9.3.2.2. Noncooperation

9.3.2.3. Direct intervention

9.4. Social Movements

9.4.1. Characteristics of dysfunction

9.4.1.1. Organization structure

9.4.1.2. Patterns of recruitment

9.4.1.3. Ideology

9.4.1.4. Personal commitment

9.4.1.5. Opposition

9.4.2. Change strategies

9.4.2.1. Bargaining

9.4.2.2. Coercion

9.4.2.3. Persuasion

9.4.3. Change tactics

9.4.3.1. Requirements

9.4.3.1.1. Breadth

9.4.3.1.2. Simplicity

9.4.3.1.3. Flexibility

9.4.3.2. Choice

9.4.3.2.1. Opposition

9.4.3.2.2. Ideology

9.4.3.2.3. Public opinion

9.4.3.3. Subordination

9.4.3.3.1. Partial inequality

9.4.3.3.2. Dependency

9.4.3.3.3. Subjugation

9.4.4. Accomplishments

9.4.4.1. Labor movements

9.4.4.2. Product-safety movement

9.4.4.3. Civil rights movements

9.4.4.4. Women's movement

9.5. Law and Social Change

9.5.1. Judiciary

9.5.2. Legislative

9.5.3. Executive Branch

9.5.4. Administrative agencies