COMPARE & CONTRAST

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COMPARE & CONTRAST by Mind Map: COMPARE & CONTRAST

1. Green Party

1.1. AFFORDABLE CARE ACT

1.1.1. The Green Party feels that Americans have been forced to buy expensive, inadequate health insurance (Green Party 2017).

1.1.2. The Congressional Budget Office predicts 28 million Americans will go without health insurance under the Affordable Care Act in 2026.

1.2. MEDICAID

1.2.1. According to the Green Party's Universal Healthcare Plan, there would be no need for Medicaid or Medicare since everyone would be covered.

1.3. MEDICARE

1.3.1. According to Medicare For All (2012), "Our current health care system lets tens of thousands of people die each year by excluding them from adequate care, while its exorbitant costs are crippling our economy. The United States is the only industrialized nation in the world without a national health care system" (p 1).

1.4. PRIVITIZED HEALTHCARE

1.4.1. A single-payer health care system works by resting all healthcare costs onto one entity.

1.4.2. According to On The Issues (2014), "The Green Party supports single-payer universal health care and preventive care for all. We believe that health care is a right, not a privilege" (p 1).

1.4.3. The Green Party is confident that administrative cost savings would surely offset the cost of care if the United States would implement a single-payer plan (Medicare For All 2012).

1.5. ABORTION

1.5.1. The Green Party believes that all women have the right to an abortion and contraception, no matter what age or marital status. They feel that these services should be covered by insurance or paid for if the woman is at the poverty level.

1.6. MEDICAL RESEARCH

1.6.1. The Green Party suggests that the National Institute of Health dispersement funds should be redirected from animal experiments to direct care, preventative care and non-animal research testing.

1.6.2. They also believe, the public should scrutinize animal research including putting an end to duplicate research projects.

2. Republican Party

2.1. AFFORDABLE CARE ACT

2.1.1. In the eyes of the republicans, the Affordable Care Act was going to help give the government control over one sixth of American population. They believe that it has now back-fired on the government and left the nation broke and angry since being forced to purchase healthcare.

2.2. MEDICAID

2.2.1. The House Republicans offered a proposal to cut trillions of dollars from the medicaid budget. According to The Hill (2019) "...the budget would impose new caps that could lead to cuts in payments over time"(p 1).

2.2.2. The federal government pays for the majority of Medicaid costs. According to the Chicago Tribune (2019), that number is up to 75% of the bill in Mississippi which is one of the poorest states.

2.2.3. Robert Foster, a republican representative for Mississippi, suggests that employed citizens should all partially pay for their own medical bills, Chicago Tribune (2019).

2.3. MEDICARE

2.3.1. In general, the republicans feel that a free market system is the best choice. It would encourage competitive prices, lessen drug price escalating lawsuits and allow people to buy insurance over state lines. This plan would potentially leave a lesser amount of Americans without healthcare. According to Cutler (2017), "The most common idea for cost saving that Republicans tout is to allow insurers to sell insurance across state lines, with the idea that competitive companies will figure out how to better handle the costs of the chronically ill" (p 8).

2.3.2. According to Republican Views (2016), "The Republican Party argues that Medicare should be designed to give older Americans choices, rather than as a one-size-fits-all institution"(p 1).

2.3.3. The republican intention is to create incentive for new drug development and simplify complex administrative systems.

2.4. PRIVITIZED HEALTHCARE

2.4.1. Privatization is when a healthcare system, for example, starts under the ownership of the government then becomes privately held.

2.4.2. According to Republican Views (2019), "The party believes that in order to fix the state of healthcare in the nation, decisions should be made between patients and their doctors, and not in the capital"(p 1).

2.5. ABORTION

2.5.1. The republican party sees an unborn child as a person with the same rights as other citizens. To that degree, they are protected by the Fourteenth Amendment.

2.6. MEDICAL RESEARCH

2.6.1. In regards to medical research, the republicans strongly oppose stem cell research considering this an "unnecessary destruction of life". However, if the research does not contradict American ethical principles they give their support (Republican Views 2019).

3. What do I think?

3.1. Affordable Care Act

3.1.1. The Affordable Care Act seemed to be a gesture from the government to the low income people. I agree with the Green Party in regards to all Americans having the right to healthcare. I also understand the Republicans point of view that a healthy person does not want to pay for expensive treatment of a sick person. Personally, I see numerous sick people each day, often who have illness that were somewhat "self-inflicted", such as liver disease from alcoholism or diabetes caused by obesity. In fact, I would say that most of the sick people I see in the hospital are obese. The only reason I bring this up is because I think the Affordable Care Act is missing some key stipulations. There should be rules met before someone is allowed to have their healthcare covered by the government. If a person is not living their life in a generally healthy manner, such as no drugs, minimal or no drinking, no smoking and eating healthy, then they should not be allowed to be covered by government(essentially tax-payer) paid healthcare. This is because people who live unhealthy lifestyles require a higher cost of healthcare. I think with healthy rules in place, the Republicans would be more likely to move toward a universal healthcare style like the Green Party suggests and the Green Party would be pleased that all Americans had a health coverage option no matter their income.

3.2. Medicaid

3.2.1. According to US News (2015), "The program presently insures over 71 million Americans – significantly more than Medicare" (p 1). By this statement, it appears that we are already providing "universal healthcare" to a large portion of American citizens. I think we could easily convert medicaid into the Green Party's Universal Healthcare idea. I imagine it would need to work as federal taxes do. We are all taxed according to our annual income. Every United State citizen who was paying their "healthcare tax" would be entitled to their choice of doctor and care facility.

3.3. Medicare

3.3.1. The Green Party feels that even with the high expense of Medicare and the debt we are accruing from it, people who are on Medicare are not receiving proper care. The Republicans also feel the program is lacking and think people on Medicare are not given the right to choose, in regards to healthcare. I think we need Medicare. If we move forward with a Universal Healthcare program it could be incorporated there, otherwise remain a separate entity of which could be revamped into a more suitable coverage for older people.

3.4. Privatized Healthcare

3.4.1. I did not understand in detail the viewpoints on privatized healthcare between the Green Party and the Republicans. I would like to learn more. Of what I did read, the Green Party would like healthcare to be single-payer. According to them, it should first be covered by the government and then the patient would pay their portion without going through insurance. The Republican views seem to cut the government out all together and wants the patient to pay for their own services that they receive. This would create more competitive prices and bring healthcare cost down to a normal level. I think the Republican point of view is unrealistic for most of Americans. We would see people dying left and right because they cannot afford to go to a doctor. But I definitely agree, if healthcare prices were put into the hands of Americans, the prices would decrease.

3.5. Abortion

3.5.1. This is a strong subject with strong opinions that range from women using it as contraception to aborting babies who might be born with extreme birth defects. The Republicans do not approve it. The Green Party not only approves it but also want the government to pay for it. Keeping both sides in mind, I would probably side with the Green Party only because if it was covered by insurance we would be able to track all abortions within this country. It would be feasible to statistically understand what communities have the most abortions and why. At that point, there might be some more proactive ideas we could use to stop the need for most abortions.

3.6. Medical Research

3.6.1. I understand the Green Party point of view that encourages the United States to stop animal research testing. It can be very inhumane and painful to the living creatures. I don't think they realize, however, that the reason they feel confident in their healthcare is because of the medical research on animals. More than 300 years of experiments have brought us where we are today. It might be a question of who is more important, humans or animals? Perhaps the answer is both. I am confident that there would be far more human deaths without the use of animals for medical research. I think the Republicans see human life as the priority when discussing medical research, which is why they approve animal testing but not stem cell research.

4. References

4.1. Republican Views. (March 2016). Retrieved from Republican Views on Medicare

4.2. Thompson, F. J. (2015, July 13). Why 2016 Matters for Medicaid. US News. Retrieved from https://www.usnews.com/opinion/blogs/policy-dose/2015/07/13/will-republican-governors-protect-medicaid-in-2016-and-beyond

4.3. Pettus, E. W. (2019 January 8). GOP Gov Candidate Foster Pushes a Type of Medicaid Expansion. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved from GOP gov candidate Foster pushes a type of Medicaid expansion

4.4. Marta, M. M. (2015). A Brief History of the Evolution of the Medical Research Article. Clujul Medical, 88(4), 567-70.

4.5. Roland, J. (2015, June 15). The Pros and Cons of Obamacare. Healthline. Retrieved from The Pros and Cons of Obamacare

4.6. Gornick, M. E., Warren, J. L., Eggers, P. W., Lubitz, J. D., De Lew, N., Davis, M. H., & Cooper, B. S. (1996). Thirty years of Medicare: impact on the covered population. Health care financing review, 18(2), 179-237.

4.7. Cutler, D. (2017 March 17). Should Healthy People Have to Pay for Chronic Illnesses?. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2017/03/17/should-healthy-people-have-to-pay-for-chronic-illnesses/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.8b57eec65b31

4.8. Green Party. (2019). retrieved from Single Payer

4.9. Health Care - Page 1 | GOP

4.10. Longest, B.B. (2016). Health Policy Making in the United States. Chicago, Illinois: Health Administration Press

5. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT

5.1. The Affordable Care Act is based on the moral issue of social justice revolving around the topic of healthcare. According to Longest (2016), "The primary goal of ACA is to increase access to affordable health insurance for the millions of Americans without coverage and make health insurance more affordable for those already covered" (p 337).

5.2. In the beginning, Medicaid included those receiving cash assistance. Today, it includes low-income, pregnant, disabled and long-term need people.

5.3. Medicare originally included hospital and medical insurance. It later included people over 65, people requiring transplants and the disabled.

5.4. Healthcare privatization has been part of the discussion regarding possible healthcare options for the United States.

5.5. Abortion has been and still is a very controversial topic in the United States.

5.6. According to Marta (2015), the first scientific research institution was dedicated in 1660 in London. Experiments were documented in great detail in order to help the readers fully understand. By the 20th century, the general outline of having a research introduction, method, result and discussion became the norm.

6. IMPLEMENTATION

6.1. 2010 Affordable Care Act signed into law by Barack Obama.

6.2. 1965 Medicaid and Medicare signed into law by Lyndon B. Johnson.

6.3. Healthcare privatization has yet to happen in the United States.

6.4. 1973 Abortion was legalized in the United States.

6.5. Medical research is implemented within dedicated hospitals who's CEOs approve responsible testing for science.

7. POPULATION IMPACT

7.1. The Affordable Care Act has affected the population both positively and negatively depending on age, health and financial status.

7.1.1. POSITIVE

7.1.1.1. Insurance companies cannot deny a person with pre-existing conditions

7.1.1.2. No limit care

7.1.1.3. Preventative care coverage

7.1.1.4. Lower cost prescription drugs

7.1.2. NEGATIVE

7.1.2.1. Higher Premiums

7.1.2.2. Fines for no insurance

7.1.2.3. Has caused a tax increase

7.1.2.4. Complicated enrollment

7.1.2.5. Higher cost to employers

7.2. Medicaid was made to impact the health of the low income population positively, providing them with preventative care, screenings and health education.

7.3. After the implementation of Medicare and according to Gornick et al (1996), "Medicare had a significant impact on the Nation's entire health care system. It is well known now that the price of medical care services spiraled when Medicare was implemented and continued to rise for many years to come" ( p 181).

7.4. Privatizing healthcare would increase cost for some Americans but also give them the option of more choices in regards to their health.

7.5. The biggest impact abortion has made on the population is the controversy. There are strong opinions on either side often with excessive emotions involved.

7.6. Medical research has improved patient outcomes and given us important advances in healthcare science. This is also a topic laced with controversy.