# Ponderal Laws

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Ponderal Laws

## 1. The law of conservation of mass

### 1.1. Antoine Lavoisier

1.1.1. In every chemical transformation, an equal quantity of matter exists before and after the reaction.

1.1.1.1. Combustion required oxygen.

1.1.1.2. Oxygen's role in the rusting of metals.

1.1.1.3. Energy doesn't created or destroyed only transformed

## 2. Law of definite proportions

### 2.1. Joseph Proust

2.1.1. In a given chemical compound, the proportion by mass of the elements that compose it are fixed, independent of the origin of the compound or its mode of preparation.

2.1.1.1. Mixtures or Compounds

2.1.1.1.1. Substances that could be broken down into more fundamental components.

2.1.1.2. Elements

2.1.1.2.1. Substances that could not be further broken down.

## 3. The law of multiple proportions

### 3.1. John Dalton

3.1.1. When two elements form a series of compounds, the masses of one that combine with a fixed mass of the other are in the ratio of (small) integers to each other.

3.1.1.1. For Example, CO (carbon monoxide), dividing their masses, mO/mC = 1.33, and CO2 (carbon dioxide) mO2/mC = 2.66. We find that mO (in CO2)/mO(in CO) = 2.

3.1.1.2. Never you gonna found atoms with fractions.

3.1.2. Propose the notion of the atom as the fundamental and indestructible building blocks of matter.

## 4. The law of combining volumes

### 4.1. Joseph Gay-Lussac, Amedeo Avogadro, Stanislao Cannizzaro

4.1.1. When two gases are allowed to react, such that the gases are at the same temperature and pressure, the volumes of each gas consumed will be in the ratio of small integers. Moreover, the ratio of the volume of each product gas to the volume of either reacting gas will be a ratio of simple integers.

4.1.1.1. Example: 3 volumes of hydrogen + 1 volume of nitrogen = 2 volumes of ammonia.

5.1.1. Equal volumes of different gases (at the same temperature and pressure) contain equal numbers of particles.

5.1.1.1. Example: How many particles are in 1 L of O2 gas, and how many particles are in 1 L of H2 gas? The density of O2 is 1.429 g/L, and the density of H2 gas is 0.0899 g/L.

5.1.1.2. Mass of O2 = (1L) (1.429g/L) = 1.429g Moles of O2 = 1.429g/31.998 g/mol=0.04466mol molecules of O2 = (0.04466mol)(6022*EXP23 molecules/mol) = 2.69 * EXP23 molecules Mass of H2 = (1L) (0.0899g/L) = 0.0899g Moles of H2 = 0.0899g/2.0158g/mol = 0.04466mol Molecules of H2 = (0.04466mol)(6.022*EXP23 molecules/mol) = 2.69*EXP22 molecules

## 8. Reciprocal Proportions

### 8.1. Jeremias Richter

8.1.1. The weights of two or more different elements which separately combine with a fixed weight of another element are either the same as, or simple multiples of, the weights of these elemets when they combine among themselves.

8.1.1.1. For example, 3 g of C react with 1 g of H to form methane. Also, 8 g of O react with 1 g of H to form water. The mass ratio of C:O=3:8.

8.1.1.2. In the same way, 12 g of C react with 32 g of O to form CO2. The mass ratio of C:O = 12:32 = 3:8. The mass ratio in which C and O combine with each other is the same as the mass ratio in which they separately combine with a fixed mass of H.

8.1.1.3. Similarly, 12 g of C react with 16 g of O to form CO . Here, the mass ratio of C:O = 12:16 = 3:4. The mass ratio in which they separately react with a fixed mass of H is 3:8. The ratio of the two ratios is 3 / 4 / 3 / 8 = 3:4 = 2 /1 . Here, the ratio in which C and O combine with each other is twice the ratio in which they separately combine with a fixed mass of H.

8.1.2. AB + BC = AC