Africans are equally responsible for the development and growth of the slave trade due to its alr...

John Thornton Chapter 3 Mind Map

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Africans are equally responsible for the development and growth of the slave trade due to its already established place in their social structure and their control of its internal functioning. by Mind Map: Africans are equally responsible for the development and growth of the slave trade due to its already established place in their social structure and their control of its internal functioning.

1. Facts

1.1. Slavery was widespread in Africa

1.1.1. Used by entrepreneurs and political powers to increase wealth and power

1.2. Slaves were viewed as revenue-producing property

1.2.1. Provided African entrepreneurs with secure and reproducing wealth

1.3. People were taxed, rather than land

1.3.1. Could include rights to labor and service

1.4. African wealth was seen to be measured in "wives"

1.5. Slavery was involuntary in Africa

1.5.1. Slaves were captured through internal war and capture

1.5.2. Slaves were property to the powers in Africa

1.5.2.1. Shown through documents and manifests that have been recovered from empires at the time

1.6. African slaves were treated similarly to peasant cultivators

2. Text

2.1. Factual Recount

2.1.1. Speaks about the history of slavery in African culture

2.1.2. Gives a personal stance on the facts presented

2.2. “Slavery and African Social Structure.” Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World: 1400-1800, by John Thornton, Second ed., Cambridge Univ. Press, 2007, pp. 72–97.

3. Exigence

3.1. Slavery was rationalized by African societies by African societies having control until slaves were loaded on European Ships

3.1.1. Africa procured the slaves from throughout the country for the European traders

3.1.2. Slaves would change hands through sale and trade multiple times before even being sold to the Europeans

3.2. The two key uses for slavery in Africa was to increase and maintain wealth, and to increase power for the political elite

3.3. The preexisting social arrangement of slavery was as responsible as any external force in developing the Atlantic slave trade

3.3.1. The already existing market of slavery in Africa was used greatly in the growth of commerce

3.4. Africa was not an economically underdeveloped region without forced labor before the Europeans showed up

3.4.1. Slavery was a key aspect of the social structure

3.4.1.1. Due to a lack of landed property, slave ownership was used to increase wealth

3.4.1.2. Slaves were used to build armies and a loyal administration for the political elite

3.5. African social leaders were not impacted on a large scale from the Atlantic slave trade

3.5.1. Were able to maintain operations as usual

3.5.2. They made no irrational decisions to enter the trade agreement

4. Reader

4.1. Europeans tapped into an existing market of slavery in Africa for their own use

4.1.1. The number of slaves coming from the Kongo equaled the number of slaves coming out of West Africa

4.1.2. The volume of slaves coming out of certain areas of Africa points to an already well-developed system of slavery

4.2. In some societies of Africa, the political elite passed along the people they "owned".

4.2.1. Land was second in terms of importance

4.3. There was no landed property, so people and the labor they provided were already seen as property that maintained and increased wealth

4.4. African rulers used their slaves to their advantage

4.4.1. They were private resources that answered only to them

4.4.1.1. Helped them to overcome checks when creating authority

4.4.2. Slaves were valuable as loyal workers and soldiers to the powers in charge (those who owned them)

5. Author

5.1. John Thornton

5.1.1. PhD in African History from UCLA in 1979

5.1.2. Specializations in Africa and Atlantic History and World History

5.1.3. Professor of African American Studies and History; Director of Graduate Studies at Boston University

5.2. Thornton is logical in stating that Africans were in charge of internal aspects of the Slave trade

5.2.1. Africans were willing trade partners

5.2.2. Europeans were limited to the coast

5.2.3. Increasing military conflict in Africa

6. Context

6.1. Historians believe that the Atlantic slave trade was unlike international trade occurring anywhere else at the time.

6.1.1. Did not believe it to be a simple commodity exchange

6.1.2. Slaves were also a source of labor

6.1.3. The removal of slaves from Africa was a major loss to the African culture

6.1.3.1. Especially true of local and regional demographics

6.1.3.2. Impacted sex ratios, dependency rates, increased warfare, and the sexual division of labor negatively

6.2. Some scholars believe that Europeans just accessed a market for slaves that was already prevalent and ongoing in Africa

6.2.1. Africans responded to the demand with more slaves being provided

7. Conclusion

7.1. The African social structure was an equal partner with Europe in the Atlantic slave trade

7.1.1. African society was in charge of the internal aspect of the Atlantic slave trade

7.1.2. Africa benefitted financially and through the trading of goods

7.2. African participation in the Atlantic slave trade can be traced back to the African society and legal systems of the time

7.2.1. Slaves were already used in Africa for both financial gain and to increase power

7.3. There was a preexisting market for slaves is Africa prior to Europes involvement

7.3.1. Slaves were used as a a form of reproducing wealth in Africa

7.4. Africa did not suffer large scale loss

7.4.1. Powers in Africa were able to maintain their operations

8. Influence

8.1. Created controversy with historians regarding the slave trade

8.1.1. Brings up the question of whether or not slave trading is a simple commodity exchange

8.1.2. Questioning whether or not the commercial relationship between Africa and Europe was like any other international trade in the world

8.1.3. Social impact on Africa

8.1.3.1. Negative impact due to the increase in slaves in Africa and how intense the exploitation of slaves got

8.1.3.1.1. "Transformation Thesis"

8.1.3.2. Some scholars believe that the social structure of Africa already relied heavily on slaves and the Atlantic slave trade had no impact on that

8.1.3.2.1. Not forced into participation of slave trade with Europe

8.1.3.2.2. No large scale losses to Africa

8.1.3.2.3. Social impact was too local and hard to distinguish from that of internal war and trade

9. Importance

9.1. To understand how prevalent slavery already was in Africa prior to the Atlantic slave trade

9.1.1. Slavery was used as a source of reproducing wealth due to a lack of landed property

9.1.2. Slavery was used by the powers in charge in order to increase power and go around checks and balances of their leaders in charge of the smaller states

9.1.2.1. Helped with having people entirely devoted to them in one of their smaller states with another ruler directly in charge

9.1.3. The growth of slavery in Africa was directly linked to the development of commerce

9.1.3.1. Slaves performed work already in Africa under private ownership and supervision to create commercial development

9.1.4. African societies maintained control of the slave trade internally even when Europe was involved

9.1.4.1. Europe took control of the slaves at the coast when they were boarded onto their ships