Romeo and Juliet (1)

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Romeo and Juliet (1) by Mind Map: Romeo and Juliet (1)

1. Dynamics

1.1. Family

1.1.1. Feuds The family feud between the Montagues and Capulets cause the two young lovers to go behind their family's backs and engage in an ultimately doomed relationship. This emotionally charged feud adds another aspect of conflict to Romeo and Juliet's lives and makes everything more intense and definitely doesn't help in promoting rational and healthy decision making. "Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona (where we lay our scene), From ancient grudges break to new mutiny, Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean. From forth the fatal loins of these two foes A pair of star-cross'd lovers take their life; ...And the continuance of their parent's rage, Which but their children's end nought could remove, Is now the two hours' traffic of our stage; The which if you with patient ears attend, What here shall miss, our toil shall strive to mend." (act 1, scene 1, lines 1-14) Adult betrayal

1.1.2. Adults and Children the Nurse As Juliet’s female role model in her life the nurse is a very influential character. The Nurse goes along with Romeo and Juliet’s secret relationship and helps them to hide it from their parents, in addition she (although maybe not verbally) even encourages them through her actions when she acts as a messenger between the two of them. As a mother figure Montagues the Montagues are not heavily involved in Romeo's life, while they do show concern for him at the beginning as Montague asks why his son is so downcast and sad. male children had more freedom apart from their family and got educated. This was in contrast to female children Capulets Capulet and Lady Capulet are heavily involved in Juliets life, they are controlling and see her as just another risk to their family's reputation. They insist that she marries Paris because of his status and do not listen to her when she expresses that she does not want to marry him. This is a good representation of a typical parent daughter relationship at the time, they want her to marry into a good family and see it as a duty to the family rather than something that would make Juliet happy. Wife and Husband Friar Lawrence As a father figure While he does caution Romeo about his actions he also does help the two lovers to meet and to ultimately marry each other. He also is the one to make up the plan that, in the end, results in both Juliet and Romeo’s death. He encourages Juliet to act like she was dead and fails to inform Romeo about said plan, as a result both Romeo and Juliet end up committing tragic suicides. What does it show? The adult character’s show the audience the faults of the older generation. They are disconnected from the lives of the children and in their attempts to understand and “help” they just end up putting their own ideals on them and in a way try to live through their experience what they wished they could do and never did in their youth. Throughout this whole play the adult characters try to impress their own values and opinions upon Romeo and Juliet, their young love is then pushed and pulled until it is so warped that it ends in tragedy.

1.2. Romantic Relationships

1.2.1. Romeo and Juliet Their relationship is a perfect depiction of "star cross'd lovers." When they meet for the first time at the party it is love at first sight and they quickly become involved in a very emotionally charged secret/forbidden relationship. They are both the main characters of the play and the main love interests. They clearly express their undying love for one another and blatantly express their feelings through imagery, sonnets, metaphors, and similes. “With love’s light wings did I o’reperch these walls, For stony limits cannot hold love out, And what love can do, that dares love attempt: Therefore thy kinsmen are no stop to me.” (act 2, scene 2, lines 66-69)

1.3. Friends

1.3.1. Romeo and Benvolio There is a kind of platonic brotherly love between the characters of Romeo and Benvolio. Benvolio shows genuine concern for Romeo’s wellbeing at the beginning of the play. Even though Benvolio does not affect the plot at all and acts as kind of an outside voice to the plot he still is seen as a good friend of Romeo’s. “Soft, I will go along; And if you leave me so, you do me wrong.” (act 1, scene 1, lines 189-190)

2. Historical References

2.1. Literary References

2.1.1. Orpheus and Eurydice Greek mythological story Orpheus was a bard, the best in Greece, and Eurydice was his beautiful wife. Orpheus and Eurydice get married, but later that night, Eurydice is bit by a snake and dies. He convinces Hades and Persephone to let Eurydice go, but her release comes with a catch: Eurydice must walk behind him as they ascend to the upper world, and Orpheus is forbidden from looking at her. He fails and they are separated forever. Christoph Willibald Gluck wrote an opera, in Italian, called Orfeo ed Euridice. It was based on the myth, however, the lovers are reunited at the end of the opera. Similar to RJ because their love for each other was their downfall. Also they both die together

2.1.2. Pyramus and Thisbe Babylonian story told by a Roman poet Basically Romeo and Juliet. They are two young people in love who’s families hate each other. Fall in love by talking through a wall They decide to get married, and agree to meet under a tree. However, when Thisbe arrives under the tree, there is a lion. She runs away but leaves her shawl. Pyramus arrives, sees the shawl and the lioness and believes that Thisbe is dead, so he kills himself. Thisbe comes back and sees him dead on the ground so she kills herself. Similar to RJ because they both die in the end, and they died because they thought the other was dead

2.1.3. Tristan and Isolde Celtic folk story Tristan, a English orphan, falls in love with a Irish princess, Isolde Tristan was going to ask for her hand in marriage on behalf of his uncle King Mark, but they accidentally drank the love potion made for the King and Isolde. Mark tries to punish Tristan but the lovers run away into the forest. They make peace with Mark and Tristan agrees to give her back to Mark. He marries a different Isolde, then gets wounded by a poison weapon. He sends for the original Isolde, and tells her to fly white sails if she agrees to heal him and if not, fly black. His envious wife tells him the sails were black when she discovers the plot. He dies, Isolde was too late to save him and she dies in a final with him. Two trees grow out of their graves and entwine. Similar to RJ because they are separated because of family. They die together after being apart.

2.2. Mythical References

2.2.1. Act 2, scene 3, lines3-5

2.3. Feuds

2.3.1. Clan Chattan and Clan Kay Two Scottish clans that feuded in the 14th century. The king tried to get them to end their feud peacefully, but failed. The two chiefs put forward the idea of a trial by combat, where they each had thirty people fighting, and the king awarded honours to the winner and a pardon to the loser. On the morning of the fight, the Chattans found that they were missing one man, and refused to fight until their numbers were evened out. At the end, Clan Chattan had 11 people left alive, whereas the Kays had only 1, who ended up leaving by swimming across the river This is similar to the Montagues and Capulets because they were fighting, but were ruled over by someone higher than them (the Prince)

2.3.2. The Borgias and the Medicis Pope Alexander VI, Rodrigo Borgia, had two illegitimate children; Cesare, a sociopath: and Lucrezia, a beautiful woman. Cesare was made a cardinal and walked the streets of Rome taking potshots at people. These two were rumoured to have committed incest, and Cesare was rumoured to have killed his sister’s lovers. The Borgias made enemies of many people in Renaissance Italy, including the Medicis, one of the big banking families in Italy. The Medicis couldn’t live in Rome for a while because of Cesare, and so didn’t like him. This is similar to the Montagues and Capulets because Romeo ended up being banished from Verona and was unable to live there, similar to the Medicis in Rome.

2.4. Historical Characters

2.4.1. Mark Antony and Cleopatra A historical story → also a play by Shakespeare Antony fled Rome after the Triumvirate collapsed, and met Cleopatra in Egypt. They lived together for a bit, but he got convicted of a crime by the Romans. Octavian attacked Cleopatra and Egypt, and they were separated. Believing that Cleopatra was dead, Antony stabbed himself. Cleopatra found out and, after several botched attempts, killed herself Similar to RJ because two people died for their love for each other. They also both thought that the other was dead and killed themselves because of it.

2.4.2. Abelard and Heloise Love story about people from the 12th century who wrote letters to each other. It is referenced multiple times by writers of that period, so historians believe that this story has at least a small amount of truth in it About a philosopher Abelard, who was famous of the time, who met a well-learned woman Heloise. They had and affair and Heloise became pregnant. Abelard sent her to his family in Brittany, where she gave birth to their son Astrolobe. They married and kept their marriage secret, but her uncle revealed. He sent her to the convent where she grew up, and she lived the life a nun. Abelard was castrated and ended up becoming a monk, and urged Heloise to take her vows to become a nun. Similar to RJ because they had to go to extreme measures to be together, and eventually had to separate to avoid retaliation by their families (especially Heloise’s uncle)

3. Characters

3.1. Main Characters

3.1.1. Friar Lawrence Acts as a father figure to Romeo He acts as a confident to Romeo Encourages the relationhsip He made the plan that ended with both lovers dead

3.1.2. Juliet Traits and Character The practical one in the relationship Development Reasonable Conflicted about Romeo Wants to take control of her life End of the play

3.1.3. Romeo Traits and Character Hopeless romantic Melancholy Brooding Quick to protect the ones he loves Impulsive Development idealistic, passionate and juvenile in the notion of love at the beginning of the play Becomes more aware of what love really means End of the play

3.1.4. The Nurse The function of the Nurse is to keep Romeo and Juliet in contact with each other Mother figure to Juliet The nurse is a confident to Juliet Acts as comic relief She encourages the relationship Her outlook on love seems to be very natural and she supports having a loving relationship, although she does have a disagreement with juliet and says that she should marry Paris, she still is very supportive of Romeo and Juliet’s romantic endeavors. “But first let me tell ye, if ye should lead her in a fool’s paradise, as they say, it were a very gross kind of behaviour, as they say; for the gentlewoman is young; and therefore, if you should deal double with her, truly it were an ill thing to be offered to any gentlewoman, and a very weak dealing.” (act 2, scene 4, lines 150-155)

3.2. Foil Characters

3.2.1. Mercutio Crude, flamboyant, witty and full of life Everything Romeo is not The death of Mercutio Shift from tragedy to comedy "A plague o' both your houses!” Queen Mab Speech Reveals Mercutio’s thoughts about the feud between the two families. References to illness suggests that the feud is damaging Verona Sympathy (or lack there of) Mercutio does exhibit much humanity, he is somewhat of a caricature of the opposite side of Romeo His death is tragic, and he is just a victim of the violence in Verona, somewhat of a innocent bystander

3.2.2. Tybalt Violent, vengeful and reactionary, possess a very macho personality Functions as a plot device to incite violence and further the plot He embodies hate, and functions as the antithesis to the greater theme of love His death is the cause of the crisis of the play (Romeo's banishment)

3.2.3. Benvolio He is level headed, which contrasts to Romeo’s rather impulsive tendencies

3.3. Minor Charcters

3.3.1. Balthazar Functions as a messenger, gives Romeo the news of Juliet's apparent death

3.3.2. Father John Supposed to tell Romeo that Juliet was faking her death but gets held up

3.3.3. Lord Capult Juliet's domineering father, wants her to marry Paris

3.3.4. Lady Capulet Juliet's mother not connected to Juliet at all

3.3.5. Lord Montague Romeo's father

3.3.6. Lady Montague Romeo's mother, dies at the end

3.3.7. Benvolio Benvolio often provides context to the story, and echos the audience’s thoughts. He tries He is somewhat removed from the plot of the story Attempts to stop violence but has no real influence on the story

4. Plot Devices

4.1. inciting factor, complication and crisis

4.1.1. Sadness: Juliet mourns for Tybalt and Romeo, questioning her values in defending her husband and staying true to her late cousin. The Nurse upon seeing Juliet’s condition meets with Friar Lawrence to convince Romeo to have faith in what will go down. He further leaves to meet with Juliet and consummate their marriage. Juliet: “My husband lives that Tybalt would have slain, And Tybalt’s dead that would have slain my husband: All this is comfort, wherefore weep I then?” (act 3, scene 2, lines 105-107)

4.1.2. Rising Action: Capulet ball where Romeo and Juliet meet. Instantly they are drawn to each other and engage in a conversation regarding the religious morale of their actions. This ends with Romeo and Juliet discovering that they are in fact sworn enemies. Still they cannot deny love at first sight. Romeo: “[To Juliet] If I profane with my unworthiest hand...Is she a Capulet? O dear account! My life is my foe’s debt.” (act 1, scene 3, lines 92-118)

4.1.3. Climax: Following the Balcony Scene of Act Three Juliet proposes to Romeo. They seek the counsel and bond of marriage as conducted by Friar Lawrence. Juliet: “If that thy bent of love be honorable, Thy purpose marriage, send me word tomorrow,” (act 2, scene 2, lines 143-144) Friar Lawrence: “In one respect I’ll thy assistant be: For this alliance may so happy prove To turn your households’ rancour to pure love.” (act 2, scene 4, lines 90-93)

4.1.4. Exposition: Duel between the Montagues and Capulets and ends with the Prince foreshadowing death.

4.1.5. Turning Point: Tybalt challenges Rome to a duel, to which Romeo declines because of his new founded relationship through marriage. Mercutio being the brave, noble and courageous knight he is takes Romeo’s place and is killed. He dies cursing the family feud and Romeo’s cowardice. Romeo who is now guilty for placing idealistic love above friendship avenges Mercutio’s death by killing Tybalt. The Prince declares Romeo to be punished through exile. Mercutio: “Help me into some house, Benvolio, Or I shall faint. A plague a’both your houses!” (act 3, scene 2, lines 101-102) Romeo: “This shall determine that. They fight; Tybalt falls” (act 2, scene 1, line 128)

4.2. foreshadowing

4.2.1. Second Prologue (act 1, scene 5, lines 144-157) The downfall of their relationship and the hardships they’ll go through. Foreshadows their death. Enforces what the audience may already have inferred from the Kissing Sonnet.

4.2.2. The Kissing Sonnet (act 1, scene 5, lines 93-107) The beginning of their love leading to their inevitable death (fatalistic) Love at first sight archetype “star cross’d lovers”, as well as a forbidden/doomed love

4.3. function of fate and coincidence

4.3.1. Fate Prologue (act 1, scene 1, lines 1-14) It reveals a fatalistic element to the story because it has an inevitable ending expressed right from the beginning There are conflicting dynamics between the older generation (parents) and their children. The main characters disobey and disappoint their family’s wishes

4.3.2. Coincidence is created through fate.

5. Rhetorical Devices

5.1. Oxymoron's

5.1.1. An oxymoron is a figure of speech which contradicts terms. In Juliet's response to hearing that Romeo has killed Tybalt she contradicts the description of an angel and a devil. Which, as a biblical allusion is opposite. Fiend refers to an evil spirt or devil, while angelical is the comeparison of one to an angel. In Romeo's first speech about love. Here he contradicts love with brawling and hate. This is an oxymoron as both terms are opposite to love. Romeo: "Why then, O brawling love, O loving hate," (act 1, scene 1, line 170)

5.2. Humour (slapstick, puns, dirty jokes)

5.2.1. Dirty Jokes Sampson: “‘Tis true,and therefore women being the weaker vessels are ever thrust to the wall: therefore I will push Montague’s men from the wall, and thrust his maids to the wall.” (act one, scene one, lines 14-17. Equals sex to anger. Includes the suggestion of raping women to show revenge. This is about the rivalry between the Capulets and the Montagues. Mercutio: “O then I see Queen Mab hath been with you:/ She is the fairies’ midwife, and she comes/ In shape no bigger than an agate-stone...This is the hag, when maids lie on their backs,/ That presses them and learns them first to bear,/ Making them women of good carriage. This is she-” (act 1, scene 4, lines 53-95) Discussed the idea of sexuality is seen in dreams. Reference to Queen Mab, the love fairy. Romeo: “O, she is rich in beauty, only poor/ That when she dies, with beauty dies her store." Benvolio: “Then she hath sworn that she will live chaste?” Romeo: “She hath, and in that sparing makes huge waste,/ For beauty starv’d with her severity/ Cuts beauty off from all posterity.” (act 1, scene 1, lines 209-214) Romeo suggests that living chaste is a “waste”, especially for a women of beauty.

5.2.2. Physical Humour/ Slapstick Stage directions Overall, stage directions are seen in shakespeare’s dialogue through the use of dialogue between characters.

5.2.3. Hyperbole Grand Gestures Grand gestures is an expression of love and feelings that requires audio or visual help such as singing, dancing, gifts, ect…

5.3. Images of light, flowers, hands

5.3.1. Light Darkness is usually associated with ‘evil’, while light is connected to ‘good’. The relationship between Romeo and Juliet is more complex since they both refer to each other as different forms of light, yet they depend on the darkness for privacy. For their love to shine it needs the balance of darkness. The Balcony Scene occurs at night, suggesting that Romeo and Juliet’s love thrives in a setting distinct from the feuds of their families. The motif of light suggests the freedom of Romeo and Juliet’s love from the social rules which divide them both. However, their meetings at night and the secrecy of their actions suggest a fatal consequence.

5.3.2. Flowers The overall use of flower in imagery is to emphasize the beginning of Romeo and Juliet's love.

5.3.3. Hands Romeo compares Juliet's hand to a "holy shrine" and worships it. Juliet explains to Romeo he is worthy enough to kiss her hand.

5.4. Contrast and juxtaposition

5.4.1. The contrast in Romeo and Juliet is the plot. Where two "star cross'd" lovers fall deeply in love but are forbidden to be together do to their families feuding.

5.4.2. Both protagonists are compared in metaphorical instances. Light and Dark Imagery

6. Timeline

6.1. On the first morning, the Montague and Capulets fight in the streets and the Prince breaks it up

6.2. Romeo is pining away for Rosaline

6.3. In the afternoon, Lord capulet and Paris talk about a marriage with Juliet

6.4. Romeo and Benvolio learn Rosaline will be at a Capulet party later, and decide to crash the party

6.5. In the evening, Lady Capulet tells Juliet that Paris wants to marry her

6.6. Romeo arrives at the party with his friends

6.7. Romeo and Juliet meet and fall in love,

6.8. Tybalt is mad that Romeo was at the party, but Lord Capulet tells him to leave it alone

6.9. Romeo looks for Juliet and Benvolio and Mercutio look for Romeo

6.10. The Balcony Scene; Romeo and Juliet decide that they will get married the next day

6.11. The next morning, Romeo convinces Friar Lawrence to marry them

6.12. Benvolio and Mercutio are looking for Romeo because Tybalt wants to challenge him to a duel

6.13. The Nurse warns Romeo not to toy with Juliet because Paris wants to marry her

6.14. In the afternoon, the Nurse delivers Romeo’s message

6.15. Romeo and Juliet meet and get married at Friar Lawrence’s cell

6.16. Benvolio and Mercutio meet Tybalt and Romeo arrives.

6.17. Tybalt challenges him to a duel and Romeo refuses, so Mercutio fights him instead and dies.

6.18. Romeo kills Tybalt and gets banished by the Prince

6.19. The Nurse tells Juliet about Tybalt’s death and Romeo’s banishment

6.20. The evening, Friar Lawrence tells Romeo of his banishment and the Nurse arrives to bring him to Juliet

6.21. Lord Capulet decides that Juliet and Paris will marry

6.22. The next morning, Romeo leaves Juliet for Mantua

6.23. Juliet is told she will marry Paris Thursday morning or else

6.24. Paris talks to Friar Lawrence about the wedding

6.25. Friar Lawrence talks to Juliet and suggests a drug so that she will appear dead and can sneak away with Romeo

6.26. Friar Lawrence sends Friar John to Mantua with a message for Romeo

6.27. That evening, Lord Capulet is arranging a big wedding and Juliet appears to be going along with the wedding

6.28. Juliet drinks the drug a day early

6.29. The next morning, Paris arrives, and they find Juliet’s body

6.30. The next afternoon,on Thursday, Romeo learns that Juliet is dead from Balthasar and buys poison from the Apothecary

6.31. That evening, Friar Lawrence learns that Friar John didn’t deliver the letter to Romeo and sends another one, and then sets off for Juliet’s tomb

6.32. Paris arrives at the tomb with a servant

6.33. Romeo and Balthasar arrive and Romeo gives Balthasar a note

6.34. Paris confronts Romeo and Romeo kills him. The servant summons the watchmen

6.35. Romeo takes the poison he bought

6.36. Friar Lawrence arrives and finds the bodies

6.37. Juliet wakes up and Friar Lawrence tries to convince her to leave

6.38. She stays and he leaves when he hears the watchmen

6.39. Juliet kills herself with Romeo’s knife

6.40. The watchmen find the bodies and send for the Prince, the Capulets, the Montagues

6.41. Friar Lawrence and Balthasar are arrested

6.42. The Prince and the Montagues and Capulets arrive

6.43. We learn Lady Montague has died of grief from Romeo’s banishment

6.44. Friar Lawrence, Balthasar, and the servant explain what happened

6.45. The Prince scolds Lord Capulet and Lord Montague, who end their feud

6.46. Overall, only about three days pass before Juliet takes the poison, as she takes it on Tuesday night. The whole play happens in a span of five days.

7. Themes

7.1. Family, Friendship, Love, Revenge, punishment

7.1.1. Family Social Conventions for both the Montague's and Capulets would force them to behave in respect to their prosperity. While the feud between both families remains unknown, both families have an individual honour to uphold. Despite having no blood relation, both the Friar and Nurse act as parental authorities for Romeo and Juliet. Both fill the void of their actual parents.

7.1.2. Revenge Every single character in the play either indirectly or directly had a part in the tragedy. Had Romeo waited a few moments before taking the poison he could have lived a happy life. However, it can be counteracted that in order for the ending to have been completely avoided Romeo should have never went to the Capulet banquet, but then that would mean that there would have been no actual plot. Furthermore, Shakespeare reminds us of the necessity of revenge to reach the resolution. Overall, were it not for the events following Tybalt’s death, the Capulets and Montague’s would never reconcile. Revenge is the onset of conflict within the play as a result of the long-held quarrel between the families. The death of Tybalt only expands the animosity and provoke’s the Prince to banish Romeo. From this point on, the play is directed through fate which prompts the tragedy. Shakespeare cleverly manipulates the plot to the interpretation of the audience. It is both possible and impossible that the ending could have been avoided.

7.1.3. Punishment Every single character in the play either indirectly or directly had a part in the tragedy. Blame prompts the question of responsibility for the actions of those who are at a fault. In Romeo and Juliet’s deaths there is not but one type of perpetrator, there are in fact two types: the direct and the indirect.

7.1.4. Friendship Tybalt and the Nurse “O Tybalt, Tybalt, the best friend I had!” Despite knowing each other for only a short amount of time, Romeo and Juliet describe a relationship that is mostly love. However, there loyalty and unyielding trust in each other proves to be a form of friendship. The love between Romeo and Juliet while obviously idealistic overshadows the theme of platonic love and furthermore, family love. With there love being almost violent to a fault, the intense passion they develop for each other is expressed in the moral dilemma towards other motifs throughout the play. Love no matter the individual occurrences in the play is influenced with death and a violent end. Romeo, Benvolio and Mercutio Benvolio is the cousin of Romeo who acts as the balance to his impracticality. From the very first encounter with Romeo, the audience sees the deep concern Benvolio expresses for Romeo. Moreover, after Romeo kills Tybalt, Benvolio persuades him to flee. As the peacekeeper of the play, Benvolio acts almost as a guide to understanding the context of the play. Based on the encounter with the Prince, Benvolio defends Romeo’s case, while remaining accountable to the truth. Mercutio and Benvolio are both dedicated to their friendship with Romeo and provide balance through contrasting personalities. Mercutio is confident and known for his sense of humour. Whereas, Benvolio is calm, collected and rational in trying to motivate people to the most peaceful of decisions.

7.1.5. Love Idealistic Love: Romeo's character at the beginning of the play is defined as a hopeless romantic who is rather juvenile in the matters of the heart. He refers to love through cliches and is shown to be fascinated with the idea of falling in love, not necessarily experiencing it. Moreover, he faces an internal conflict with unrequited love from Rosaline. As the lead hero, he is very much controlled by his heart and emotions rather than practical thought. Quote: “Love is a smoke raised with the fume of sighs; being purg’d, a fire sparkling in lovers’ eyes, being vex’d, a sea nourish’d with loving tears. What is it else? A madness most discreet, A choking gall and a preserving sweet.” (1.1.184-188) From the very beginning of the play, Romeo embodies the persona of a hopeless romantic. He is obsessed with the idea of love, not necessarily the experience of it. Moreover, he faces an internal conflict with unrequited love for Rosaline. His love is displayed through cliches as demonstrated through his less than original sonnets. The most graphic of actions would be the choice of suicide for both protagonists as a preservation of eternal love. Love in the play is defined opposite from its cordial notions and is instead displayed in a manner of recklessness and untamed.