Standards and Curriculum

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Standards and Curriculum by Mind Map: Standards and Curriculum

1. Stephanie is this color

2. Social forces

2.1. Social forces that impact curriculum are present in three levels: National and International, School Culture, and Local Community. Our group as selected what we think of as the most important/influential components of these levels. Click on the dots to expand the explanation.

2.1.1. National and International Level: Lack of Purpose and Meaning

2.1.1.1. Many students in the modern day lack drive and clear goals. When it comes to low income families, this is especially true. Students from these families do not see a purpose in getting an education and plan to just work in the family business or follow the example set for them by falling into drugs, gangs, or prison lifestyles. "Their life settings are characterized by problems of alcoholism or other substance abuse, family and/or gang violence, unemployment, poverty, poor nutrition, teenage parenthood, and a history of school failure" (Parkay, Anctil, & Hass, 2014, p. 51).

2.1.1.2. The State of Arizona has a lot of poverty and unemployment which add to the lack of purpose and meaning factor that schools have to take into consideration when it comes to designing curriculum.

2.1.1.3. Other considerations: Equal rights, crime and violence, changing world of work, global interdependence, ethnic and cultural diversity, changing values and morality, microelectronics revolution, environment, family

2.1.2. Local Community Level: Student's Backgrounds

2.1.2.1. Students come to school with all sorts of backgrounds and experiences. Each one brings this unique information to their educational understanding. This can aid or hinder their learning processes. Some students come with more preparation depending on their home life, some come with less. Students from multi-cultural households may face the challenge of having to learn English as a new language while also starting a new school. Each one will approach the task of learning through the lens of their own background and experience.

2.1.2.2. Many Arizona students come from families that are native to Mexico and so have a Spanish speaking background which influences their learning. They also have many family members still in Mexico which can impact them emotionally as well as intellectually.

2.1.2.3. Other Considerations: Community values, Family structure, class structure

2.1.3. School Culture Level: Learner's Social Status

2.1.3.1. The social status of a class or school has always had an impact on certain students. Some are willing to be the know-it-all and do not care what their peers think. Others are afraid to speak up in class and so never raise their hand when they have a question. Depending on where a learner falls in the social spectrum of their peers, it can severely inhibit their ability to learn. They may be unwilling to work in groups or solicit feedback during pair-share or turn and talk times. They may not even ask the teacher for help if they worry that it will make them look "dumb" in front of their classmates. Their family's social status also has an impact on this. If they feel they are more wealthy or less so than their peers it tends to impact how they interact with one another, even in regards to their studies.

2.1.3.2. Arizona students in many parts of the state are from lower income families. Their social status can vary from incredibly high in areas like Scottsdale to very low in areas like Maryvale, south Phoenix, or the reservations. The access to education is limited for some of these students to when they can get transportation to school or when they are not needed to watch their younger siblings while parents are at work. This impacts how they interpret curriculum.

2.1.3.3. Other considerations: School-community harmony or discord, teacher's role with staff, traditions, assumptions, teacher's role in school, beliefs, values

3. Theories of human development

3.1. Whether you are talking about at a school level or in a personal way, your views on the theories of human development should play a role in your curriculum design. I have selected what I consider to be the most influential components of several theories.

3.1.1. Psychosocial Development

3.1.1.1. Sometimes as adults, especially as teachers, we forget all of the other things going on in a child's brain. Keeping in mind that there are various key events that occur at different age levels is critical in appropriate curriculum construction. For example the emphasis on peer relationships during adolescence.

3.1.2. Cognitive Development

3.1.2.1. Understanding how a child develops how they think over time helps determine the "how" in curriculum planning. Considering how a child thinks from sensorimotor to formal operational should guide how and which new topics are introduced. Also, knowing that learning at a cognitive level requires accommodation of schema means curriculum should provide ample opportunities for collaboration and communication.

3.1.3. Moral Development

3.1.3.1. According to Parkay, Anctil, and Hass (2014) “education is not value-free--it is a moral enterprise whether we wish it to be or not” (p. 129). Students will naturally develop their own sense of ethics over time, and it is our opinion that we should be intentionally challenging students perceptions of morals. If are not explicit with it, that doesn't mean students won't be influenced by teachers and the school culture, so it is better to incorporate this in curriculum. Kohlberg (as cited in Parkay, Anctil, & Haas, 2014) argues “the conditions for moral development in homes and schools are similar” (p. 189). Studies show the impact of schooling on moral development is similar to the impact of family on a child's ethics. Teachers and schools play an important role in moral development; not something to take lightly.

4. Bridgette is this color

5. Learning and Learning Styles

5.1. Matt is this color

5.2. Learning theories and styles are the foundation of curriculum. While there is not an agreed upon definition of learning, most learning theorist s and researchers, "agree that learning is a change in an individual's knowledge or behavior that results from experience" (Parkay, Anctil & Hass, 2014, p. 224). Under this definition there are two groups of learning theories: behavioral and cognitive.

5.2.1. Cognitive

5.2.1.1. “According to cognitive learning theories, the individual acts, originates, and thinks, and this is the important source of learning”(Parkey, Anctil & Hass, 2014, p. 226). This learning theory holds that learning in more internal than the behavioral theory believes. Those that hold this belief work under the assumption that given a stimulus we should be looking at how the student processes, retains and creates based on that stimulus. Developing curriculum under this theory must start by considering these processes. We must look at what are best practices in the cognitive processes of our students, and then develop our curriculum to match that. Learning that takes advantage of our our students' cognitively retain information, will be far more effective.

5.2.2. Behavioral

5.2.2.1. Parkey, Anctil & Hass (2014) identify behavioral learning as, “observable changes in behavior that result from stimulus-response (S-R) associations made by the learner” (p. 224). The subgroups under this heading are based on this overarching idea: that learning is a conditioned response to rewards and punishments. Adherents to this theory tend to see the rewards given by an educator as the primary motivator for students to learn a new topic. Curriculum under this heading is directly related to outside forces, exerting influence on the student, and any curriculum planning needs to take this into account.

5.2.2.2. Social Learning Theory

5.2.2.2.1. One of the subgroups under the behavioral heading, social learning theory tends to focus on the same idea of external forces exerting pressure on the learner, but in this case those pressures are social in nature. Our education, in this view, is based on the socialization of our families, friends, teachers, and other interactions in our life. Learning happens through the student modeling someone in their life, and then gaining that knowledge. (Parkey, Anctil & Hass, 2014, p. 226)

6. School/District

6.1. In Arizona, while standards are approved by a State board, and there is not much wiggle room at a public school, a curriculum is adopted by locally elected school boards. There is also a policy put into place to receive feedback from the public on curriculum choices. Click on the link (the arrow) to see more specifics. This is different from the curriculum construction at a charter or private school.