Transition to Post-secondary Education for Students with Disabilities

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Transition to Post-secondary Education for Students with Disabilities by Mind Map: Transition to Post-secondary Education for Students with Disabilities

1. Chapter 1: Who is the student in Transition to Post-secondary

1.1. Concepts of transition

1.1.1. Emerged in the 1950's and 1960's

1.1.2. Career development and post-secondary planning

1.1.2.1. Career awareness

1.1.2.2. Career choice

1.1.3. Improved graduation rates

1.1.3.1. Graduation Pathways

1.1.4. Transition from school to employment and adult life roles

1.1.4.1. Adjustment to adult roles

1.1.4.2. Forming links between education and human service agencies

1.1.4.2.1. Employment training

1.1.4.2.2. Adult services

1.1.4.2.3. Rehabilitation

1.2. Participation in and outcomes of post-secondary education

1.2.1. Preparation for post-secondary settings

1.2.1.1. Many are not adequately prepared

1.2.1.1.1. Self-advocation

1.2.1.2. Many not encouraged to extend their education beyond secondary school

1.2.1.2.1. This comes from minimal involvement in their Individual Education Plan

1.2.2. Increased number of students in college who report disabilities

1.2.3. Long-term outcomes of participation in college

1.2.3.1. Student with disabilities that earn bachelor's degrees do as almost as well with employment as those without

1.3. Barriers to participation in post-secondary education

1.3.1. Lack of identification of the disability in early school years

1.3.1.1. Delayed identification prevents the benefits of needed services

1.3.1.2. Some are not appropriately identified or provided services

1.3.2. Lack of financial support through college

1.3.2.1. Individuals with disabilities likely live below poverty line as compared to those without

1.3.2.2. Receive less financial aid

1.3.2.3. Low awareness

1.3.2.3.1. SSI or SSDI disability benefits

1.3.2.3.2. Work incentive programs

1.3.3. Attitudes and stigma

1.3.3.1. Self-concept

1.3.3.2. Poor socialization skills

1.3.3.3. Stress and anxiety

1.3.3.4. Reluctant professors

1.3.4. Culturally and linguistically diverse students

1.3.4.1. Language Barriers

1.3.4.2. Social barriers

1.3.4.2.1. Students with a disability less likely to disclose

1.3.5. Gap in Technology

1.3.5.1. Access impedes their abilities

1.3.5.2. Some have never used a computer

1.3.5.3. Advocate for technological needs

1.3.6. Inadequate preparation of college faculty

1.3.6.1. Lack of awareness of disability needs

1.3.6.2. Available supports

1.3.6.3. Lack of accommodation responsibility

1.3.6.3.1. Can increase diminished student performance

1.3.6.3.2. Invite misunderstanding and conflict

1.4. Employment After High School

1.4.1. Large gaps between students with disabilities and their non-disabled peers

1.4.2. 43% of disabled students are employed compared to 69% of their non-disabled peers

1.5. Barriers to Employment

1.5.1. Lack of career related coursework

1.5.1.1. Not adequately prepared

1.5.1.2. Need appropriate career development courses

1.5.1.2.1. Schools can bridge the gap

1.5.2. Work based learning experiences in school

1.5.2.1. Participation in work based learning is associated with successful outcomes for youth with disabilities

1.6. Adolescent Development

1.6.1. The adolescent brain

1.6.2. Implications for transition

1.6.2.1. Developmental/ self-concept theory

1.6.2.1.1. Ginsberg, et al vocational choice theory

1.7. Career counseling needs

1.7.1. Career guidance

1.7.1.1. Developmental needs

1.7.1.2. Social and economic changes

1.7.1.3. Intervention strategies for personal and career competence

1.7.1.3.1. Competence Model

1.7.1.4. Counseling strategies

1.7.1.4.1. Flexibility

1.7.1.4.2. Multiple transition plans

1.7.1.4.3. Self-advocacy and marketing

1.7.1.4.4. Managing change

1.7.1.4.5. Meeting basic needs

1.7.1.4.6. Coping with stress and loss

1.7.1.4.7. Bridging programs

2. Chapter 2: What Changes as the Student Moves From the Secondary to the Post-Secondary

2.1. What is different for the student in the post-secondary world?

2.1.1. Receive transition services before exiting secondary world, these are entitled services

2.1.2. Upon exiting secondary world must rely on adult services

2.1.2.1. These are not entitled

2.1.2.2. Students need self advocacy skills

2.1.2.2.1. Curriculum for self-advocacy and self-determination taught in only half of secondary schools

2.1.3. Laws governing secondary and post-secondary settings are different

2.1.3.1. While in high school, decisions made by parent and professionals

2.1.3.2. Post-secondary setting, the students are responsible for self-identification, providing documentation and informing the institution of needs for accommodation

2.1.3.2.1. Students do this without a professional team to decide for them

2.1.3.2.2. Typically disability services makes decisions based on "reasonable accommodations" by the ADA and Section 504 instead of the IDEA

2.1.3.2.3. Students often have to repeat the process each semester once they are in the post-secondary setting

2.2. Strategies to assist transition to a post-secondary world

2.2.1. New laws have improved access and support to those with disabilities

2.2.1.1. Post-secondary institutions have developed a greater capacity to recruit, retain and support students

2.2.2. Begin planning in high school for the post-secondary world

2.2.2.1. Post-secondary goal

2.2.2.1.1. College

2.2.2.1.2. Employment

2.2.2.2. Backward planning

2.2.2.2.1. Allows for aligning student for transition

2.2.2.3. Identifying and exploring supports and accommodations needed in post-secondary environments

2.2.2.3.1. Plans to prepare for transition to the post-secondary supports

2.2.3. Coordination of community service agencies during the last year of high school

2.2.3.1. Comprehensive system of services

2.2.3.1.1. Public health services

2.2.3.1.2. Mental Health Counseling

2.2.3.1.3. Vocational rehabilitation

2.2.3.1.4. Assisted technology

2.2.3.1.5. Developmental disabilities

2.2.3.1.6. Employment

2.2.3.1.7. Independent living

2.2.3.2. Local services that include therapeutic recreation, day activities, respite care and residential services

2.3. Concept of Supported Education

2.3.1. Accommodates the needs of individuals with psychiatric disabilities

2.3.1.1. 3 supported education program prototypes

2.3.1.1.1. Self-contained

2.3.1.1.2. On-site

2.3.1.1.3. Mobile

2.3.2. Most common strategies

2.3.2.1. Extra time

2.3.2.2. Priority registration

2.3.2.3. Audio recording of lectures

2.3.2.4. Note takers

2.3.2.5. Modified deadlines for assignments

2.3.2.6. Reduced course load

2.3.2.7. Preferential classroom seating

2.3.2.8. Early availability of syllabus and/or textbooks

2.4. 2004 IDEA promotes post-secondary participation

2.4.1. With collaboration and summary of performance

2.4.2. With collaboration and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act

2.4.3. Collaboration at the age of majority

2.5. Strategies to assist with transition to employment

2.5.1. Identifying what the student needs

2.5.1.1. Prepared to determine their needs from the secondary level that will accommodate in the post-secondary level

2.5.1.2. Prepared to utilize assisted technology

2.5.1.3. Teachers need to be aware of post-secondary education environmental demands and expectations

2.5.1.3.1. To be able to properly prepare the students to acquire skills, supports and accommodations

2.5.1.4. More emphasis on training in post-secondary level

2.5.1.4.1. Admissions staff

2.5.1.4.2. Faculty

2.5.1.4.3. Residence staff

2.5.2. Collaboration and the Higher Education Act

2.5.2.1. The collaboration between post-secondary institutions and secondary schools; particularly those that serve low income and disadvantaged students

2.5.2.2. Promotes collaboration among business, labor organizations, community-based organizations, private and civic organizations

2.5.3. Coordination and the ADA in post-secondary institutions and employment

2.5.3.1. Provides accommodations in public and private organizations

2.5.3.1.1. Private and public schools

2.5.3.1.2. Colleges and Universities

2.5.3.1.3. Vocational-technical schools

2.5.3.1.4. Employer based training programs

2.5.3.2. Preparation for college interviews, knowledge about about accommodations in programs, assistance with applications and supporting documentation

2.5.4. Vocational Rehabiliation Role

2.5.4.1. Critical for assisting in obtaining employment

2.5.4.2. Critical in preparing for education, training and employment beyond secondary level

2.5.5. The ADA in Employment

2.5.5.1. Prohibits discrimination

2.5.5.2. Covers all aspects of employment

2.5.5.2.1. Application

2.5.5.2.2. Testing and medical examinations

2.5.5.2.3. Promotion

2.5.5.2.4. Hiring and layoffs

2.5.5.2.5. Assignments and terminations

2.5.5.2.6. Evaluations and compensations

2.5.5.2.7. Disciplinary actions and leave

2.5.5.2.8. Training and benefits

2.5.6. Social Security Administration

2.5.6.1. Plan to achieve self-support plan

2.5.6.1.1. PASS plan

2.5.6.1.2. 3 requirements

2.5.6.2. Ticket to work and work incentive

2.5.6.2.1. Individuals can obtain job related training and placement assistance

2.5.6.2.2. Expands health coverage, so that the individual can be employed without fear of losing health insurance