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Rocket clouds

1. some are twining, while others are vinelike of even float on water.

2. Embryophytes


2.1.1. Hepatophyta liverworts

2.1.2. Bryophyte true mosses

2.1.3. Anthocerophyta hornworts

2.2. Land plants

2.2.1. eveolved from green algae

2.2.2. movement to land BENEFITS: Unfiltered sun more CO2 nutrient-rich soil

2.2.3. diploid embryo is retained within the tissue of the female gametophyte

2.2.4. plants sustain continual growth in their apical meristems cells from the apical meristems differentiate into various tissues

2.2.5. apical meristems roots shoots more derived traits cuticle stomata

2.3. called embryophytes because of the dependancy of the embryo on the parent

2.4. multicellular, dependant embryos

2.4.1. nutrients are transferred from parent to embryo through placental transfer cells

2.5. walled spores produced in sporangia

2.5.1. the sporophyte produces spores in organs called sporangia spore walls contain sporopollenin, which makes them resistant to harsh environments

2.6. multicellular gametangia

2.6.1. female gametangia called archegonia, produce eggs and are the site of fertilization

2.6.2. male gametangia, called antheridia, produce and release sperm

3. Seedless Vascular

3.1. Monilophyta

3.1.1. Ferns nonflowering vascular plants. have true roots, stems, and complex leaves reproduce by spores range from plants of 1-1.2 cm to huge 30-80 feet trees. best in damp conditions

3.1.2. Horsetails some are evergreen, some grow new stalks annually. They have hollow jointed, ridged stems that contain silicate. Conelike clusters, strobili

3.1.3. Wiskferns Lycophyta: Vascular plants, have unique leaves called microphylls. Microphylls are leaves that only have one vein running down the leaf. Clubmosses Spike mosses Quillworts vascular plants whisklike green stems and scale like appendages called enations. contain no veins mostly grow as epiphytes Photosynthesis occours in aerial stems, water and mineral absorption occours in the horizontal underground rootlike stems called Rhizomes. reproduce asexually by spores called sporophytes. Gametophytes

3.2. Have flagellated spores

4. Seed/ Vascular plants

4.1. Angiosperms

4.1.1. Eudocots true dicots Taproot(main root) usually present pollen grain with three openings floral organs usually in multiples of four or five Rosacanina vascular tissue stems are usually arranged in a ring embryos with two cotyledons leaf veins are netlike, usually

4.1.2. Monocots Embryos with one cotyledon leaf veins are usually parallel vascular tissue stems are scattered root system usually fiburous, no main root Pollen grain with only one opening Floral organs usually in multiples of 3 Lemboglossum rossii

4.1.3. Basal Angiosperms Amborella Water lilies Nymphaea "Rene Gerard" Star Anise Illicium Magnoliids Magnolia grandiflora

4.1.4. Bennettitales Extinct seed plants Flowerlike structures

4.1.5. Reproductive Structures Fruits Aid in their dispersal Protect seeds mature fruits can be fleshy dry Flowers Sexual Reproduction floral organs complete flowers incomplete flowers symmetry

4.1.6. Survive better than unprotected spores, can transport long distances

4.2. Gymnosperms

4.2.1. Seeds do not form in an enclosed structure Cycadophyta Flagellated sperm Large cones and palm like leaves Ginkophyta Tollerance to air pollution Only one living species today Leaves have fan like appearance Gnetophyta Vary in appearance Some tropical/Deserts Coniferophyta Most conifers are evergreen Photosynthesis all year All specied produce cones

4.3. Five Derived Traits

4.3.1. Reduced gametophytes Microscopic male and femal gametophytes and nourished and protected by sporohyte 2n

4.3.2. Heterospory Microspore Megaspore

4.3.3. Ovules Gymnosperm

4.3.4. Pollen Grains make water unnecessary for fertilization

4.3.5. Seeds