Computer Architecture

ICT SRO 2nd week

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Computer Architecture by Mind Map: Computer Architecture

1. Logic gates

1.1. AND

1.1.1. 0+0=0

1.1.2. 0+1=0

1.1.3. 1+0=0

1.1.4. 1+1=1

1.2. OR

1.2.1. 0+0=0

1.2.2. 0+1=1

1.2.3. 1+0=1

1.2.4. 1+1=1

1.3. NAND

1.3.1. 0+0=1

1.3.2. 0+1=1

1.3.3. 1+0=1

1.3.4. 1+1=0

1.4. NOR

1.4.1. 0+0=1

1.4.2. 0+1=0

1.4.3. 1+0=0

1.4.4. 1+1=0

1.5. XOR

1.5.1. 0+0=0

1.5.2. 0+1=1

1.5.3. 1+0=1

1.5.4. 1+1=0

1.6. NOT

1.6.1. 0+0=1

1.6.2. 0+1=1

1.6.3. 1+0=0

1.6.4. 1+1=0

2. Organization

2.1. processor

2.1.1. CPU - is the main part of computer Desktop Processor: Intel (Pentium) Core 2 Duo/Quad, AMD Athelon (Dual/Quad Core) Mobile Processor: Intel (Centrino 2) Core 2 Duo, AMD Turion (Dual Core) Server Processor: Intel Xeon Quad Core, AMD Optron Quad Core, RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer): IBM Power PC, SUN SPARC .. Atom Processor

2.1.2. CPU – Central Processing Unit (Microprocessor) consists of three parts: Control Unit Execute programs/instructions: the machine language Move data from one memory location to another Communicate between other parts of a PC Arithmetic Logic Unit Arithmetic operations: add, subtract, multiply, divide Logic operations: and, or, xor Floating point operations: real number manipulation Registers

2.2. memory

2.2.1. Passive component. It simply stores the information written in it. RAM (Random Access Memory) DRAM (Dynamic RAM) SRAM (Static RAM) ROM (Read Only Memory)

2.3. input/output(I/O)

2.3.1. input mouse keyboard micro

2.3.2. output speaker printer screen

3. History of computers

3.1. 1.The dark ages:(3000 B.C.E – 1890 C.E)

3.1.1. a)ABACUS Date of development: 3000 B.C.E (5000 years ago) Place: China Function: Arithmetic calculation

3.1.2. b)Napier's Bones Date: 1617 Place: Scotland Inventor: John Napier Function: Multiplication and Division

3.1.3. c)Slide Rule Date: 1632 Place: England Inventor: William Oughtred Components: Two movable rules Function: Multiplication and Division

3.1.4. d)Pascal Arithmetic Machine Date: 1642 Place: France Inventor: Blasé Pascal Function: All the arithmetic operations but it required considerable manual effort for Multiplication and Division

3.2. 2.The middle ages: (1890 – 1944)

3.2.1. a)Punched-card Tabulating Machine Date: 1890 Place: USA Bureau Census Inventor: Dr. Herman Hollerith

3.2.2. b)The Simultaneous Punching Machine Date: 1910 Place: USA Bureau Census Inventor: James Power Major innovation: An earlier card-punched equipment to cheek and correct data before it was actually punched onto cards

3.2.3. c)ABC (Atanasoff Berry Computer) Date: 1938 Place: Iowa State College Inventor: Dr. John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry Major innovation: a special purpose computer

3.3. 3.The modern ages: (1944 till now)

3.3.1. a)MARK 1 Date: 1944 Type: The first electro-mechanical computer "automatically performing of arithmetical and logical operations" Inventor: IBM Company/ Howard G. Aiken, Professor of Math's at Harvard University Size: 50 foot long, 8 foot high

3.3.2. b)ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) Date: 1946 Type: The first electronics digital computer "automatically performing of arithmetical and logical operations" Inventor: Dr. John Mauchly in USA Weight: 30 Ton

4. Generations of computers

4.1. First Generation of Computer (1946-1959)

4.1.1. Main Features Major Innovation: Vacuum Tubes Main Memory: Punched Cards Input Output Devices: Punched cards and papers Languages: Low level machine language Operating System: No operating system, human operators to set switches Size: Main frame for example ENIAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC

4.2. Second Generation of Computers (1959-1964)

4.2.1. Main Features Major Innovation: Transistors as main component Main Memory: RAM and ROM External Storage: Magnetic tapes and Magnetic Disk Input Output Devices: Magnetic tapes and Magnetic Disk Languages: Assembly language, some high level languages for Example BASIC, COBOL, FORTRAN Operating System: Human handles punched card Size: Mainframe for example IBM-1400, NCR-300, IBM-1600, UNIVAC-III, etc…

4.3. Third Generation of Computers (1965-1970)

4.3.1. Main Features Major Innovation: Integrated circuit (ICs) as basic electronic component (SSIC and MSIC) Main Memory: PROM and DRAM External Storage: Improve disk (Floppy Disk) Input and Output Devices: Keyboard for input, monitor for output Languages: More high level languages Operating System: Complete operating systems were introduced Size: Mainframe and Mini Computer, for example: IBM SYSTEM /360, ICH-360, HONEY WELL-316, etc…

4.4. Fourth Generation of Computers (1971-1981)

4.4.1. Main Features Major Innovation: LSIC and VLSIC (Micro Processor) Main Memory: EPROM and SRAM External Storage: Floppy Disk and Hard Disk Input and Output Devices: Monitor for output Languages: Languages and application software Operating System: MS-DOS and PC-DOS Size: Microcomputer e.g. IBM-PC, Apple Macintosh etc..

4.5. Fifth Generation (1981-Onward)

4.5.1. Main Features Major Innovations: ULSIC (Ultra large scale integrated circuit) Main Memory: EEPROM, SIMM and DIMM External Storage: Modified magnetic and Optical disks Input/output Devices: Keyboard, Pointing Device, Scanner as input and Monitor as main output Languages: AI (Artificial Intelligence) Expert systems Operating System: GUI based e.g. Windows (95, 98, 2000, NT, XP, Vista, Seven, Eight, and Ten) Size: Very small in size example: Laptop, Note book, Digital Diary, Palmtop and Pocket PC

5. Types of computers

5.1. 1)Supercomputers

5.2. 2)Mainframes

5.3. 3)Mini-Computers

5.4. 4)Personal Computers (PC)

5.4.1. Desktop

5.4.2. Portable

5.4.3. Hand-Held